Project #1 Psychology 412

Commercials on Children's TV

 

 

            Do a literature review on the topic.  A computer search will be necessary.  Look specifically for research studies rather than opinion papers or commentary.

 

            This project will look at commercials on TV using systematic observation.  Rather than recording ads verbatim, as paragraph descriptions, a tabulation of specific topics and gender role-related behaviors will be the basis of analysis.  A sample recording chart is provided.  Observers note the topic of each ad and will simply count behaviors of any characters using hatch marks or check marks.  To begin, you must first decide how it will define the terms used in the recording chart, and what will be included.  How will you decide what is "nurturant" or "problem solving", for example?  What will you count as "aggression", etc.  Write out each definition before you begin analysis of any commercials.  Make sure you are clear on what to count.

 

            Videotapes of Saturday morning programming for children from the past, from Fox, CBS, NBC, or ABC will be provided for you to analyze.  You must also make a tape of this year's Saturday morning children's shows to view as a comparison.  At least two people should watch the ads embedded in each show on both of the tapes, doing the same analysis, so that their records at the end can be compared, to see how closely they agree.  You may have to view these tapes more than once to get the information you need.  Feel free to stop re-wind, etc.

 

For each show, record the name.  Identify it as animated or not.  Categorize it as comedy, drama, action-adventure, etc.  Tell how long it was, half-hour, hour-long, etc.  Then...

 

            A.  Identify each of the commercials by product being sold   For each commercial that has animated or human characters identify each character by their name and by their gender.  Make a chart listing them as in the example provided.  If there is a voice-over with these commercials, identify the voice as male or female.  For those commercials with no actual characters, i.e. those which only show the product, listen to the voice-over and identify the voice as male or female.

 

            B.  Characterize the activities of each character or voice-over, including at least the following;  aggression, nurturance, problem solving, conformity, advice giving, advice seeking, physically exertive behavior, passive observing, joking/clowning, being the butt of a joke.  (Feel free to add further categories here if they interest you.)  The same character may show examples of more than one of these categories during the ad, so you must try to count each time a particular behavior occurs and get a total for each behavior, for each character or voice-over.

 

            When at least two observers have recorded the behaviors of each ad on all of the shows on the tape, you are ready to analyze the data.

 

            A.  First look for inter-observer agreement.  Compare the records of each observer and note the differences.  The two people who made the observations may want to talk over the disagreements to see if they can resolve their differences.  Was there any misunderstanding of the category definitions, for example, that might explain discrepancies?  Then count the number of agreements and the number of unresolved disagreements and calculate a percent agreement score for all the ads together.  ( # of times you agreed / total # of observations)

 

            B.  Second, look at the pattern of behaviors on the charts for the characters for each show.  Consider first the total number of male characters versus female characters and voice-overs.  Then look for patterns of behavior.  Are the behaviors gender role stereotyped, or is some other pattern the case?

 

            C.  Finally, look at the topics of the ads for each show.  Try to group them into categories such as toys, fast food, cereals, etc.  Then report the percentage of the total number of ads that fit into each of your categories.  What sorts of products are most commonly sold to children?   ( # of ads in a specific category / total # of ads)

 

      Compare your results with those from the research studies you found in your review of the literature.  Are your results similar?  Has there been any change in the pattern since 1998?  Draw some overall conclusions.  Type up the whole project APA style.

 

 


Year ____.Show _______________________. Type ___________.Time _____

 

 

Commercial Product _______________________.

Voice or        Gender                                                Behaviors                                         

Character      M/F        Aggression       Nurturance       Problem Solving         etc...

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

 

Commercial Product ________________________.

Voice or        Gender                                                Behaviors                                         

Character      M/F        Aggression       Nurturance       Problem Solving         etc...

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

 

Commercial Product ________________________.

Voice or        Gender                                                Behaviors                                         

Character      M/F        Aggression       Nurturance       Problem Solving         etc...

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

Continue for each commercial...


 

 

 

 

Project  #2 Psychology 412

Aggression on Children's TV

 

 

            Do a literature review on the topic.  A computer search will be necessary.  Look specifically for research studies rather than opinion papers or commentary.

 

            This project will look at aggression on TV using systematic observation.  Rather than recording actions of characters verbatim, as paragraph descriptions, a tabulation of specific behaviors will be the basis of analysis.  A sample recording chart is provided.  Observers will simply count behaviors of various characters using hatch marks or check marks.  To begin, you must first decide how it will define the terms used in the recording chart, and what will be included.  How will you decide which are central characters and which are minor, for example?  What will you count as "verbal aggression", etc.  Write out each definition before you begin analysis of any shows.  Make sure you are clear on what to count.

 

            Videotapes of Saturday morning programming for children from the past, from Fox, CBS, NBC, or ABC will be provided for you to analyze.  You must make a similar tape of this Fall's Saturday morning programming for comparison.  At least two people should watch each show on both of the tapes, doing the same analysis, so that their records at the end can be compared, to see how closely they agree.  You may have to view these tapes more than once to get the information you need.  Feel free to stop re-wind, etc.

 

For each show, record the name.  Identify it as animated or not.  Categorize it as comedy, drama, action-adventure, etc.  Tell how long it was, half-hour, hour-long, etc.  Then...

 

            A.  Identify the characters by name and determine whether they are central characters or minor characters in the episode you are watching.  Can some be identified as heroes, some as bad guys?  Make a chart listing them as in the example provided.

 

            B.  Count the aggressive activities of each character, including physical as well as verbal aggression.  (Feel free to add further categories such "physically exertive behavior", or "assertive behavior" here if they interest you.)  The same character, particularly a central character, may show examples of all of these categories more than once during the program, so you must try to count each time a particular behavior occurs and get a total for each behavior, for each character.

C.        For each behavior you record note whether or not there was an observable consequence.  Was that behavior rewarded, punished, or was there no observable consequence?

 

            When at least two observers have recorded the behaviors of each show on the tape, you are ready to analyze the data.

 

            A.  First look for inter-observer agreement.  Compare the records of each observer and note the differences.  The two people who made the observations may want to talk over the disagreements to see if they can resolve their differences.  Was there any misunderstanding of the category definitions, for example, that might explain discrepancies?  Then count the number of agreements and the number of unresolved disagreements and calculate a percent agreement score for each show.  ( # of times you agreed / total # of observations)

 

            B.  Second, look at the pattern of behaviors on the charts for the central characters for each show.  Consider first the total number of male central characters versus female central characters.  Then look for patterns of behavior.  Are the behaviors gender role stereotyped, or is some other pattern the case, such as animal vs. human, or machine vs. human, etc.?  Are villains more violent than heroes?

 

            C.  Then look at the minor characters for each show.  Consider the number of males and females, etc., and again look for patterns of behavior.

 

      Compare your results with those from the research studies you found in your review of the literature.  Are your results similar?  Has the pattern changed since 1998?  Draw some overall conclusions.  Type up the whole project APA style.

 

 


Year _____ Show ______________________ Type_____________ Time_____

 

Central        Gender     Villain/         Aggressive Behaviors               Consequences

Characters    M/F          Hero           Verbal      Physical      etc.            Plus/Minus/0_

 

________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

Minor           Gender     Villain/         Aggressive Behaviors               Consequences

Characters    M/F          Hero           Verbal      Physical      etc.            Plus/Minus/0_

 

________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________

 

 

 


Project #3  Psychology 412

Sex Roles on Children's TV

 

 

            Do a literature review on the topic.  A computer search will be necessary.  Look specifically for research studies rather than opinion papers or commentary.

 

            This project will look at gender roles on TV using systematic observation.  Rather than recording actions of characters verbatim, as paragraph descriptions, a tabulation of specific gender role-related behaviors will be the basis of analysis.  A sample recording chart is provided.  Observers will simply count behaviors of various characters using hatch marks or check marks.  To begin, you must first decide how you will define the terms used in the recording chart, and what will be included.  How will you decide which are central characters and which are minor, for example?  What will you count as "aggression", etc.  Write out each definition before you begin analysis of any shows.  Make sure you are clear on what to count.

 

            Videotapes of Saturday morning programming for children from the past, from Fox, CBS, NBC, or ABC will be provided for you to analyze.  You must make a similar tape from this Fall's Saturday shows for comparison.  At least two people should watch each show on all of the tapes, doing the same analysis, so that their records at the end can be compared, to see how closely they agree.  You may have to view these tapes more than once to get the information you need.  Feel free to stop re-wind, etc.

 

For each show, record the name.  Identify it as animated or not.  Categorize it as comedy, drama, action-adventure, etc.  Tell how long it was, half-hour, hour-long, etc.  Then...

 

            A.  Identify the characters by name and by their gender, and determine whether they are central characters or minor characters in the episode you are watching.  Make a chart listing them as in the example provided.

 

            B.  Count the activities of each character, including at least the following;  aggression, nurturance, problem solving, conformity, advice giving, advice seeking, physically exertive behavior, passive observing, joking/clowning, being the butt of a joke.  (Feel free to add further categories here if they interest you.)  The same character, particularly a central character, may show examples of all of these categories during the program, so you must try to count each time a particular behavior occurs and get a total for each behavior, for each character.

 

            When at least two observers have recorded the behaviors of each show on the tape, you are ready to analyze the data.

 

            A.  First look for inter-observer agreement.  Compare the records of each observer and note the differences.  The two people who made the observations may want to talk over the disagreements to see if they can resolve their differences.  Was there any misunderstanding of the category definitions, for example, that might explain discrepancies?  Then count the number of agreements and the number of unresolved disagreements and calculate a percent agreement score for each show.   ( # of times you agreed / total # of observations)

 

            B.  Second, look at the pattern of behaviors on the charts for the central characters for each show.  Consider first the total number of male central characters versus female central characters.  Then look for patterns of behavior.  Are the behaviors gender role stereotyped, or is some other pattern the case?

 

            C.  Finally, look at the minor characters for each show.  Consider the number of males and females, and again look for patterns of behavior related to gender roles.

 

      Compare your results with those from the research studies you found in your review of the literature.  Are your results similar?  Has the pattern changed since 1998?  Draw some overall conclusions.  Type up the whole project APA style.

 


Year _____ Show _______________________. Type ___________.Time _____

 

 

Central        Gender                                                  Behaviors                                         

Character      M/F        Aggression       Nurturance       Problem Solving         etc...

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

                                                                                                                                               

 

 

 

 

 

Minor           Gender                                                  Behaviors                                         

Character      M/F        Aggression       Nurturance       Problem Solving         etc...