SSRIC Teaching Resources Depository
Public Opinion on Social Issues -- 1975-1996
Elizabeth N. Nelson and Edward E. Nelson, California State University, Fresno

SISS Appendix A:
Codebook for the Social Issues Subset of the General Social Survey

© The Authors, 1998; Last Modified 15 August 1998

This codebook accompanies sisssp1.por and sisssp2.por, which are subsets of the General Social Survey. sisssp1.por includes the subset from the 1996 GSS, while sisssp2.por includes data from four years of the GSS--1996, 1989, 1982, 1975. Some of the variables in the GSS have been recoded to make them easier to use and some new variables have been created. The column, "Years," indicates which years include that variable.

A BC DE FG HI JK LM NO PQ RS TU VW XYZ

List of Variables

Variable Name Years Variable Label
ABANY 96 89 82 ABORTION--FOR ANY REASON
ABDEFECT 96 89 82 75 ABORTION--STRONG CHANCE SERIOUS DEFECT
ABHLTH 96 89 82 75 ABORTION--WOMANS HEALTH ENDANGERED
ABNOMORE 96 89 82 75 ABORTION--MARRIED,NO MORE CHILDREN
ABPOOR 96 89 82 75 ABORTION--LOW INCOME, CANT AFFORD MORE
ABRAPE 96 89 82 75 ABORTION--PREGNANT AS RESULT OF RAPE
ABSINGLE 96 89 82 75 ABORTION--NOT MARRIED
AGE  96 89 82 75 AGE OF RESPONDENT
AGE1 96 89 82 75 AGE RECODED IN TEN YEAR INTERVALS
AGE2 96 89 82 75 AGE RECODED IN THREE CATEGORIES
AGED 96 89 75 SHOULD AGED LIVE WITH THEIR CHILDREN
ATTEND 96 89 82 75 HOW OFTEN R ATTENDS RELIGIOUS SERVICES
BUSING 96 89 82 75 ATTITUDE TOWARD RACIAL BUSING
CHILDS 96 89 82 75 NUMBER OF CHILDREN
CLASS 96 89 82 75 SUBJECTIVE CLASS IDENTIFICATION
COLATH 96 89 82 ALLOW ANTI-RELIGIONIST TO TEACH
COLCOM 96 89 82 SHOULD COMMUNIST TEACHER BE FIRED
COLHOMO 96 89 82 ALLOW HOMOSEXUAL TO TEACH
COLMIL 96 89 82 ALLOW MILITARIST TO TEACH
COLRAC 96 89 82 ALLOW RACIST TO TEACH
CONARMY 96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN MILITARY
CONBUS 96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN MAJOR COMPANIES
CONCLERG 96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN ORGANIZED RELIGION
CONEDUC 96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN EDUCATION
CONFED 96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN EXEC BRANCH OF FED GOVT
CONFINAN 96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN BANKS & FINANCIAL INST
CONJUDGE 96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN U.S. SUPREME COURT
CONLABOR 96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN ORGANIZED LABOR
CONLEGIS  96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN CONGRESS
CONMEDIC 96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN MEDICINE
CONPRESS 96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN PRESS
CONSCI 96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY
CONTV 96 89 82 75 CONFIDENCE IN TELEVISION
COURTS 96 89 82 75 COURTS DEALING WITH CRIMINALS
DEGREE 96 89 82 75 R'S HIGHEST DEGREE
EDUC 96 89 82 75 HIGHEST YEAR OF SCHOOL COMPLETED
EDUC1 96 89 82 75 EDUCATION RECODED
EQINCOME 96 GOVT SHOULD REDISTRIBUTE WEALTH
EQUALIZE 96 GOVT'S RESP: REDUCE INCOME DIFFERENCES
EQWLTH 96 89 SHOULD GOVT REDUCE INCOME DIFFERENCES
FEAR 96 89 82 AFRAID TO WALK AT NIGHT IN NEIGHBORHOOD
FECHLD 96 89 MOTHER WORKING DOESNT HURT CHILDREN
FEFAM 96 89 BETTER FOR MAN TO WORK, WOMAN TEND HOME
FEHELP 96 89 WIFE SHOULD HELP HUSBANDS CAREER FIRST
FEHOME 96 89 82 75 WOMEN TAKE CARE OF HOME NOT COUNTRY
FEPOL 96 89 82 75 WOMEN NOT SUITED FOR POLITICS
FEPRES 96 89 82 75 VOTE FOR WOMAN PRESIDENT
FEPRESCH 96 89 PRESCHOOL KIDS SUFFER IF MOTHER WORKS
FEWORK 96 89 82 75 SHOULD WOMEN WORK
FINALTER 96 89 82 75 CHANGE IN FINANCIAL SITUATION
FINRELA 96 89 82 75 OPINION OF FAMILY INCOME
FUND 96 89 82 75 HOW FUNDAMENTALIST IS R CURRENTLY
INCOME91 96 TOTAL FAMILY INCOME
INCOME86 89 TOTAL FAMILY INCOME
INCOME82 82 TOTAL FAMILY INCOME
INCOME 75 TOTAL FAMILY INCOME
LIBATH 96 89 82 ALLOW ANTI-RELIGIOUS BOOK IN LIBRARY
LIBCOM 96 89 82 ALLOW COMMUNISTS BOOK IN LIBRARY
LIBHOMO 96 89 82 ALLOW HOMOSEXUALS BOOK IN LIBRARY
LIBMIL 96 89 82 ALLOW MILITARISTS BOOK IN LIBRARY
LIBRAC 96 89 82 ALLOW RACISTS BOOK IN LIBRARY
MARITAL 96 89 82 75 MARITAL STATUS
NATAID 96 89 82 75 FOREIGN AID
NATAIDY 96 89 ASSISTANCE TO OTHER COUNTRIES -- VER Y
NATARMS 96 89 82 75 MILITARY, ARMAMENTS, AND DEFENSE
NATARMSY 96 89 NATIONAL DEFENSE -- VERSION Y
NATCITY 96 89 82 75 SOLVING PROBLEMS OF BIG CITIES
NATCITYY 96 89 ASSISTANCE TO BIG CITIES --VERSION Y
NATCRIME 96 89 82 75 HALTING RISING CRIME RATE
NATCRIMY 96 89 LAW ENFORCEMENT -- VERISON Y
NATDRUG 96 89 82 75 DEALING WITH DRUG ADDICTION
NATDRUGY 96 89 DRUG REHABILITATION -- VERSION Y
NATEDUC 96 89 82 75 IMPROVING NATIONS EDUCATION SYSTEM
NATEDUCY 96 89 EDUCATION -- VERSION Y
NATENVIR 96 89 82 75 IMPROVING&PROTECTING ENVIRONMENT
NATENVIY 96 89 THE ENVIRONMENT -- VERSION Y
NATFARE 96 89 82 75 WELFARE
NATFAREY 96 89 ASSISTANCE TO THE POOR -- VERSION Y
NATHEAL 96 89 82 75 IMPROVING&PROTECTING NATIONS HEALTH
NATHEALY 96 89 HEALTH -- VERSION Y
NATMASS 96 89 MASS TRANSPORTATION
NATPARK 96 89 PARKS AND RECREATION
NATRACE 96 89 82 75 IMPROVING THE CONDITIONS OF BLACKS
NATRACEY 96 89 ASSISTANCE TO BLACKS -- VERSION Y
NATROAD 96 89 HIGHWAYS AND BRIDGES
NATSOC 96 89 SOCIAL SECURITY
NATSPAC 96 89 82 75 SPACE EXPLORATION PROGRAM
NATSPACY 96 89 SPACE EXPLORATION -- VERSION Y
PARTYID 96 89 82 75 POLITICAL PARTY AFFILIATION
PRAY 96 89 HOW OFTEN DOES R PRAY
PRAYER 96 89 82 75 SUPPORT SUPREME COURT'S DECISION
PRESTG80 96 89 R'S OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE SCORE (1980)
PRESTIGE 82 75 R'S OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE SCORE (1970)
PRESTG1 96 89 82 75 RECODED OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE
RACE 96 89 82 75 RACE OF RESPONDENT
RACFEW 96 89 82 75 CHILDREN TO SCHOOL WITH OPPOSITE RACE
RACHAF 96 89 82 75 CHILDREN TO SCHOOL HALF OPPOSITE RACE
RACHOME 96 89 82 OPPOSITE RACE HOME FOR DINNER
RACLIVE 96 89 82 75 ANY OPPOSITE RACE IN NEIGHBORHOOD
RACMAR 96 89 82 75 FAVOR LAW AGAINST RACIAL INTERMARRIAGE
RACMOST 96 89 82 75 CHILDREN TO SCHOOL MOSTLY OPPOSITE RACE
RACOPEN 96 89 75 VOTE ON OPEN HOUSING LAW
RACPRES 96 89 82 75 WOULD VOTE FOR BLACK PRESIDENT
RACPUSH 96 82 75 BLACKS SHOULDNT PUSH
RACSEG 96 89 82 WHITES HAVE RIGHT TO SEG NEIGHBORHOOD
REGION 96 89 82 75 REGION OF INTERVIEW
RELIG 96 89 82 75 R'S RELIGIOUS PREFERENCE
RELIGOS 96 89 RELIGIOSITY
RELITEN 96 89 82 75 STRENGTH OF AFFILIATION
RINCOM91 96 RESPONDENT'S INCOME
RINCOM86 89 RESPONDENT'S INCOME
RINCOM82 82 RESPONDENT'S INCOME
RINCOME 75 RESPONDENT'S INCOME
SATFIN 96 89 82 75 SATISFACTION WITH FINANCIAL SITUATION
SEI 96 89 RESPONDENT SOCIOECONOMIC INDEX
SEI1 96 89 RECODED SOCIOECONOMIC INDEX
SEX 96 89 82 75 RESPONDENT'S SEX
SPKATH 96 89 82 ALLOW ANTI-RELIGIONIST TO SPEAK
SPKCOM 96 89 82 ALLOW COMMUNIST TO SPEAK
SPKHOMO 96 89 82 ALLOW HOMOSEXUAL TO SPEAK
SPKMIL 96 89 82 ALLOW MILITARIST TO SPEAK
SPKRAC 96 89 82 ALLOW RACIST TO SPEAK
SUICIDE1 96 89 82 SUICIDE IF INCURABLE DISEASE
SUICIDE2 96 89 82 SUICIDE IF BANKRUPT
SUICIDE3 96 89 82 SUICIDE IF DISHONORED FAMILY
SUICIDE4 96 89 82 SUICIDE IF TIRED OF LIVING
TOLATH 96 89 82 TOLERANCE--ANTI RELIGIONIST
TOLCOM 96 89 82 TOLERANCE--COMMUNIST
TOLHOMO 96 89 82 TOLERANCE--HOMOSEXUAL
TOLMIL 96 89 82 TOLERANCE--MILITARIST
TOLRAC 96 89 82 TOLERANCE--RACIST

ABANY Please tell me whether or not you think it should be possible for a pregnant woman to obtain a legal abortion the woman wants it for any reason?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

ABDEFECT Please tell me whether or not you think it should be possible for a pregnant woman to obtain a legal abortion if there is a strong chance of serious defect in the baby?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

ABHLTH Please tell me whether or not you think it should be possible for a pregnant woman to obtain a legal abortion if the woman's own health is seriously endangered by the pregnancy?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

ABNOMORE Please tell me whether or not you think it should be possible for a pregnant woman to obtain a legal abortion if she is married and does not want any more children?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

ABPOOR Please tell me whether or not you think it should be possible for a pregnant woman to obtain a legal abortion if the family has a very low income and cannot afford any more children?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

ABRAPE Please tell me whether or not you think it should be possible for a pregnant woman to obtain a legal abortion if she became pregnant as a result of rape?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

ABSINGLE Please tell me whether or not you think it should be possible for a pregnant woman to obtain a legal abortion if she is not married and does not want to marry the man?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

AGE Age of respondent in years
9 NA

AGE1 Age recoded ten year intervals
1 UNDER 30
2 30 TO 39
3 40 TO 49
4 50 TO 59
5 60 TO 69
6 70 AND OVER
9 MISSING

AGE2 Age recoded in three categories
1 UNDER 30
2 30 TO 49
3 50 AND OVER
9 MISSING

AGED As you know, many older people share a home with their grown children. Do you think this is generally a good idea or a bad idea?
1 A GOOD IDEA
2 DEPENDS
3 A BAD IDEA
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

ATTEND How often do you attend religious services?
0 NEVER
1 LT ONCE A YEAR
2 ONCE A YEAR
3 SEVERAL TIMES A YEAR
4 ONCE A MONTH
5 2-3X A MONTH
6 NEARLY EVERY WEEK
7 EVERY WEEK
8 MORE THAN ONCE WEEK
9 DK, NA

BUSING In general, do you favor or oppose the busing of (Negro/Black/African-American) and white school children from one school district to another?
1 FAVOR
2 OPPOSE
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CHILDS How many children have you ever had? (Includes all that were born alive at any time and those from a previous marriage)
8 EIGHT OR MORE
9 NA

CLASS If you were asked to use one of four names for your social class, which would you say you belong in: the lower class, the working class, the middle class, or the upper class?
1 LOWER CLASS
2 WORKING CLASS
3 MIDDLE CLASS
4 UPPER CLASS
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

COLATH There are always some people whose ideas are considered bad or dangerous by other people. For instance, somebody who is against all churches and religion . . .
Should such a person be allowed to teach in a college or university, or not?
1 ALLOWED
2 NOT ALLOWED
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

COLCOM Now, I should like to ask you some questions about a man who admits he is a Communist. Suppose he is teaching in a college. Should he be allowed to teach, or not?
1 ALLOWED
2 NOT ALLOWED
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

COLHOMO And what about a man who admits that he is a homosexual? Should such a person be allowed to teach in a college or university, or not?
1 ALLOW
2 NOT ALLOW
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

COLMIL Consider a person who advocates doing away with elections and letting the military run the country. Should such a person be allowed to teach in a college or university, or not?
1 ALLOW
2 NOT ALLOW
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

COLRAC Or consider a person who believes that Blacks are genetically inferior. Should such a person be allowed to teach in a college or university, or not?
1 ALLOW
2 NOT ALLOW
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONARMY I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

Military
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONBUS I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

Major companies
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONCLERG I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

Organized religion
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONEDUC I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

Education
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONFED I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

Executive branch of the federal government
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONFINAN I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

Banks and financial institutions
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONJUDGE I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

U.S. Supreme Court
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONLABOR I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

Organized labor
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONLEGIS I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

Congress
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONMEDIC I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

Medicine
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONPRESS I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

Press
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONSCI I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

Scientific Community
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

CONTV I am going to name some institutions in this country. As far as the people running these institutions are concerned, would you say you have a great deal of confidence, only some confidence, or hardly any confidence at all in them?

TV
1 A GREAT DEAL
2 ONLY SOME
3 HARDLY ANY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

COURTS In general, do you think the courts in this area deal too harshly or not harshly enough with criminals?
1 TOO HARSH
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 NOT HARSH ENOUGH
8 DK
9 NA

DEGREE Respondent's highest degree
0 LT HIGH SCHOOL
1 HIGH SCHOOL
2 JUNIOR COLLEGE
3 BACHELOR
4 GRADUATE
7 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

EDUC What is the highest grade in elementary school or high school that you finished and got credit for?
8 DK
9 NA

EDUC1 Education recoded
1 12 YEARS OR LESS
2 13 TO 15 YEARS
3 16 YEARS OR MORE
9 DK, NA

EQINCOME It is the responsibility of the government to reduce the differences in income between people with high incomes and those with low incomes.
1 AGREE STRONGLY
2 AGREE
3 NEITHER
4 DISAGREE
5 DISAGREE STRONGLY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

EQUALIZE On the whole, do you think it should or should not be the government's responsibility to reduce income differences between the rich and poor.
1 DEFINITELY SHOULD BE
2 PROBABLY SHOULD BE
3 PROBABLY SHOULD NOT BE
4 DEFINITELY SHOULD NOT BE
0 NAP
8 CAN'T CHOOSE
9 NA

EQWLTH Some people think that the government in Washington ought to reduce the income differences between the rich and the poor, perhaps by raising the taxes of wealthy families or by giving income assistance to the poor. Others think that the government should not concern itself with reducing this income difference between the rich and the poor.
1 GOVERNMENT REDUCE DIFFERENCES
7 NO GOVERNMENT ACTION
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

FEAR Is there any area right around here--that is, within a mile--where you would be afraid to walk alone at night?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK

FECHLD A working mother can establish just as warm and secure a relationship with her children as a mother who does not work.
1 STRONGLY AGREE
2 AGREE
3 DISAGREE
4 STRONGLY DISAGREE
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

FEFAM It is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever outside the home and the woman takes care of the home and family.
1 STRONGLY AGREE
2 AGREE
3 DISAGREE
4 STRONGLY DISAGREE
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

FEHELP It is more important for a wife to help her husband's career than to have one herself.
1 STRONGLY AGREE
2 AGREE
3 DISAGREE
4 STRONGLY DISAGREE
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

FEHOME Women should take care of running their homes and leave running the country up to men.
1 AGREE
2 DISAGREE
0 NAP
8 NOT SURE
9 NA

FEPOL Most men are better suited emotionally for politics than are most women.
1 AGREE
2 DISAGREE
0 NAP
8 NOT SURE
9 NA

FEPRES If your party nominated a woman for President, would you vote for her if she were qualified for the job?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

FEPRESCH A preschool child is likely to suffer if his or her mother works.
1 STRONGLY AGREE
2 AGREE
3 DISAGREE
4 STRONGLY DISAGREE
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

FEWORK Do you approve or disapprove of a married woman earning money in business or industry if she has a husband capable of supporting her?
1 APPROVE
2 DISAPPROVE
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

FINALTER During the last few years, has your financial situation been getting better, worse, or has it stayed the same?
1 BETTER
2 STAYED SAME
3 WORSE
8 DK
9 NA

FINRELA Compared with American families in general, would you say your family income is far below average, below average, average, above average, or far above average?
1 FAR BELOW AVERAGE
2 BELOW AVERAGE
3 AVERAGE
4 ABOVE AVERAGE
5 FAR ABOVE AVERAGE
8 DK
9 NA

FUND Fundamentalism/Liberalism of respondent's religion
1 FUNDAMENTALIST
2 MODERATE
3 LIBERAL
9 NA

INCOME91 In which of these groups did your total family income, from all sources, fall last year before taxes? [see footnote 1]
1 Under $10000
2 $10000-14999
3 $15000-19999
4 $20000-24999
5 $25000-34999
6 $35000-49999
7 $50000-59999
8 $60000-74999
9 $75000+
22 REFUSED
8 DK
9 NA

INCOME86 [see footnote 1]
1 Under $10000
2 $10000-14999
3 $15000-19999
4 $20000-24999
5 $25000-34999
6 $35000-49999
7 $50000-59999
8 $60000+
22 REFUSED
8 DK
9 NA

INCOME82 [see footnote 1]
1 Under $10000
2 $10000-14999
3 $15000-19999
4 $20000-24999
5 $25000-34999
6 $35000-49999
7 $50000+
22 REFUSED
8 DK
9 NA

INCOME [see footnote 1]
1 Under $10000
2 $10000-14999
3 $15000-19999
4 $20000-24999
5 $25000+
22 REFUSED
8 DK
9 NA

LIBATH There are always some people whose ideas are considered bad or dangerous by other people. For instance, somebody who is against all churches and religion . . . If some people in your community suggested that a book he wrote against churches and religion should be taken out of your public library, would you favor removing this book, or not?
1 NOT REMOVE
2 REMOVE
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

LIBCOM Now, I should like to ask you some questions about a man who admits he is a Communist. Suppose he wrote a book which is in your public library. Somebody in your community suggests that the book should be removed from the library. Would you favor removing it, or not?
1 NOT REMOVE
2 REMOVE
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

LIBHOMO And what about a man who admits that he is a homosexual? If some people in your community suggested that a book he wrote in favor of homosexuality should be taken out of your public library, would you favor removing this book, or not?
1 NOT REMOVE
2 REMOVE
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

LIBMIL Consider a person who advocates doing away with elections and letting the military run the country. Suppose he wrote a book advocating doing away with elections and letting the military run the country. Somebody in your community suggests that the book be removed from the public library. Would you favor removing it, or not?
1 NOT REMOVE
2 REMOVE
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

LIBRAC Or consider a person who believes that Blacks are genetically inferior. If some people in your community suggested that a book he wrote which said Blacks are inferior should be taken out of your public library, would you favor removing this book, or not?
1 NOT REMOVE
2 REMOVE
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

MARITAL Are you currently--married, widowed, divorced, separated, or have you never been married?
1 MARRIED
2 WIDOWED
3 DIVORCED
4 SEPARATED
5 NEVER MARRIED
9 NA

NATAID We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Foreign aid
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATAIDY We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Assistance to other countries
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATARMS We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

The military, armaments and defense
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATARMSY We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

National defense
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATCITY We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Solving the problems of the big cities
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATCITYY We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Assistance to big cities
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATCRIME We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Halting the rising crime rate
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATCRIMY We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Law enforcement
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATDRUG We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Dealing with drug addiction
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATDRUGY We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Drug rehabilitation
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATEDUC We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Improving the nation's education system
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATEDUCY We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Education
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATENVIR We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Improving and protecting the environment
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATENVIY We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

The environment
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATFARE We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Welfare
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATFAREY We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Assistance to the poor
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATHEAL We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Improving and protecting the nation's health
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATHEALY We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Health
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATMASS We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Mass Transportation
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATPARK We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Parks and recreation
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATRACE We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Improving the conditions of Blacks
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATRACEY We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Assistance to blacks
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATROAD We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Highways and bridges
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATSOC We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. Are we spending too much money, too little money, or about the right amount on...

Social Security
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATSPAC We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. First (READ ITEM A) . . . are we spending too much, too little, or about the right amount on (ITEM)?

Space exploration program
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

NATSPACY We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I'm going to name some of these problems, and for each one I'd like you to tell me whether you think we're spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. First (READ ITEM A) . . . are we spending too much, too little, or about the right amount on (ITEM)?

Space exploration
1 TOO LITTLE
2 ABOUT RIGHT
3 TOO MUCH
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

PARTYID Generally speaking, do you usually think of yourself as a Republican, Democrat, Independent, or what?
0 STRONG DEMOCRAT
1 NOT STRONG DEMOCRAT
2 INDEPENDENT, NEAR DEMOCRAT
3 INDEPENDENT
4 INDEPENDENT, NEAR REPUBLICAN
5 NOT STRONG REPUBLICAN
6 STRONG REPUBLICAN
7 OTHER PARTY
9 NA

PRAY About how often do you pray?
1 SEVERAL TIMES A DAY
2 ONCE A DAY
3 SEVERAL TIMES A WEEK
4 ONCE A WEEK
5 LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK
6 NEVER
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

PRAYER The United States Supreme Court has ruled that no state or local government may require the reading of the Lord's Prayer or Bible verses in public schools. What are your views on this--do you approve or disapprove of the court ruling?
1 APPROVE
2 DISAPPROVE
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

PRESTG80 Prestige of respondent's occupation (1980) Measure of respondent's occupational prestige which is a replication and extension of the Hodge-Siegel-Rossi ratings of occupational prestige. Low scores indicate low prestige and high scores indicate high prestige. See the appendices in the Cumulative Codebook for the General Social Surveys for more information.
0 DK, NA, NAP

PRESTIGE Prestige of respondent's occupation (1970) Measure of respondent's occupational prestige which is a replication and extension of the Hodge-Siegel-Rossi ratings of occupational prestige. Low scores indicate low prestige and high scores indicate high prestige. See the appendices in the Cumulative Codebook for the General Social Surveys for more information.
0 DK, NA, NAP

PRESTG1 Recoded prestige of respondent's occupation (see PRESTG80 and PRESTIGE). (Quartiles are approximate. Percentages will not always equal 25%.)
0 DK, NA, NAP
1 LOWEST QUARTILE
2 SECOND QUARTILE
3 THIRD QUARTILE
4 HIGHEST QUARTILE

RACE What race do you consider yourself?
1 WHITE
2 BLACK
3 OTHER

RACFEW Would you yourself have any objection to sending your children to a school where a few of the children are [Whites/(Negroes/Blacks/African-Americans)]? [see footnote 3]
1 OBJECT
2 NOT OBJECT
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

RACHAF Would you yourself have any objection to sending your children to a school where half of the children are [Whites/(Negroes/Blacks/African- Americans]? [see footnote 3]
1 OBJECT
2 NOT OBJECT
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

RACMOST Would you yourself have any objection to sending your children to a school where more than half of the children are [Whites/(Negroes/Blacks/African-Americans]? [see footnote 3]
1 OBJECT
2 NOT OBJECT
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

RACHOME During the last few years, has anyone in your family brought a friend who was a (Negro/Black/African-American) home for dinner?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

RACLIVE Are there any (Negroes/Blacks/African-Americans) living in this neighborhood now? [see footnote 3]
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

RACMAR Do you think there should be laws against marriages between (Negroes/Blacks/African-Americans) and whites? [see footnote 3]
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

RACOPEN Suppose there is a community-wide vote on the general housing issue. There are two possible laws to vote on. Which law would you vote for? [see footnote 3]
1 OWNER DECIDES
2 CAN'T DISCRIMINATE
3 NEITHER
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

RACPRES If your party nominated a (Negro/Black/African-American) for President, would you vote for him if he were qualified for the job? [see footnote 3]
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

RACPUSH (Negroes/Blacks/African-Americans) shouldn't push themselves where they're not wanted [see footnote 3].
1 AGREE STRONGLY
2 AGREE SLIGHTLY
3 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY
4 DISAGREE STRONGLY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

RACSEG White people have a right to keep (Negroes/Blacks/African-Americans) out of their neighborhoods if they want to, and (Negroes/Blacks/African-Americans) should respect that right.
1 AGREE STRONGLY
2 AGREE SLIGHTLY
3 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY
4 DISAGREE STRONGLY
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

REGION Region of interview
1 NEW ENGLAND
2 MIDDLE ATLANTIC
3 EAST NORTH CENTRAL
4 WEST NORTH CENTRAL
5 SOUTH ATLANTIC
6 EAST SOUTH CENTRAL
7 WEST SOUTH CENTRAL
8 MOUNTAIN
9 PACIFIC

RELIG What is your religious preference? Is it Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, some other religion, or no religion?
1 PROTESTANT
2 CATHOLIC
3 JEWISH
4 NONE
5 OTHER
8 DK
9 NA

RELIGOS Religiosity. Religiosity is the strength of an individual's attachment to his or her religious affiliation. It was created by combining three other variables-RELITEN (attachment to religious preference), PRAY (frequency of prayer), and ATTEND (frequency of church attendance). If an individual says he has a strong attachment to his religious affiliation, attends church often, and prays often, then he or she is highly religious. If an individual says he doesn't have a strong attachment to his religious affiliation, attends church infrequently, and prays infrequently, then he or she is not religious. Everyone else will be somewhere between highly religious and not religious. (Not available for 1982 and 1975.)
1 HIGH IN RELIGIOSITY
2 MEDIUM IN RELIGIOSITY
3 LOW IN RELIGIOSITY
9 MISSING

RELITEN Would you call yourself a strong (Protestant, Catholic, Jew, Other-specify) or a not very strong (Protestant, Catholic, Jew, Other-specify)?
1 STRONG
2 NOT VERY STRONG
3 SOMEWHAT STRONG
4 NO RELIGION
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

RINCOM91 Respondent's income. In which of these groups did your earnings for last year fall? That is, before taxes or other deductions [see footnote 2].
1 UNDER $1000
2 $10000-14999
3 $15000-19999
4 $20000-24999
5 $25000-34999
6 $35000-49999
7 $50000-59999
8 $60000-74999
9 $75000+
22 REFUSED
98 DK
99 NA

RINCOM86 [see footnote 2]
1 UNDER $1000
2 $10000-14999
3 $15000-19999
4 $20000-24999
5 $25000-34999
6 $35000-49999
7 $50000-59999
8 $60000+
22 REFUSED
98 DK
99 NA

RINCOM82 [see footnote 2]
1 UNDER $1000
2 $10000-14999
3 $15000-19999
4 $20000-24999
5 $25000-34999
6 $35000-49999
7 $50000+
22 REFUSED
98 DK
99 NA

RINCOME [see footnote 2]
1 UNDER $1000
2 $10000-14999
3 $15000-19999
4 $20000-24999
5 $25000+
22 REFUSED
98 DK
99 NA

SATFIN We are interested in how people are getting along financially these days. So far as you and your family are concerned, would you say that you are pretty well satisfied with your present financial situation, more or less satisfied, or not satisfied at all?
1 SATISFIED
2 MORE OR LESS
3 NOT AT ALL SATISFIED
8 DK
9 NA

SEI Respondent's socioeconomic index. Measure of occupational prestige which is based on the work of Otis Dudley Duncan. Low scores indicate low prestige and high scores indicate high prestige. See the appendices in the Cumulative Codebook for the General Social Surveys for more information. (Quartiles are approximate. Percentages will not always equal 25%.)
0 NAP

SEI1 Recoded respondent's socioeconomic index (see SEI)
0 NAP
2 LOWEST QUARTILE
2 SECOND QUARTILE
2 THIRD QUARTILE
2 HIGHEST QUARTILE

SEX Respondent's sex
1 MALE
2 FEMALE

SPKATH There are always some people whose ideas are considered bad or dangerous by other people. For instance, somebody who is against all churches and religion. If such a person wanted to make a speech in your (city/town/community) against churches and religion, should he be allowed to speak, or not?
1 ALLOW
2 NOT ALLOW
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

SPKCOM Now, I should like to ask you some questions about a man who admits he is a Communist. Suppose this admitted Communist wanted to make a speech in your community. Should he be allowed to speak, or not?
1 ALLOW
2 NOT ALLOW
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

SPKHOMO And what about a man who admits that he is a homosexual? Suppose this admitted homosexual wanted to make a speech in your community. Should he be allowed to speak, or not?
1 ALLOW
2 NOT ALLOW
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

SPKMIL Consider a person who advocates doing away with elections and letting the military run the country. If such a person wanted to make a speech in your community, should he be allowed to speak, or not?
1 ALLOW
2 NOT ALLOW
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

SPKRAC Or consider a person who believes that Blacks are genetically inferior. If such a person wanted to make a speech in your community claiming that Blacks are inferior, should he be allowed to speak, or not?
1 ALLOW
2 NOT ALLOW
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

SUICIDE1 Do you think a person has the right to end his or her own life if this person has an incurable disease?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

SUICIDE2 Do you think a person has the right to end his or her own life if this person if this person has gone bankrupt?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

SUICIDE3 Do you think a person has the right to end his or her own life if this person has dishonored his or her family?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

SUICIDE4 Do you think a person has the right to end his or her own life if this person is tired of living and ready to die?
1 YES
2 NO
0 NAP
8 DK
9 NA

TOLATH Tolerance-anti-religionist. This is a measure of tolerance created by combining COLATH, LIBATH, and SPKATH. These questions ask if a person who is an atheist should be allowed to teach in a college or university, to have a book in the public library, and to give a public speech. A person is high in tolerance if they would allow all three and low if they would not allow any. All others are medium in tolerance. (Not available for 1975.)
3 HIGH
4 MEDIUM HIGH
5 MEDIUM LOW
6 LOW
9 MISSING

TOLCOM Tolerance-communist.. This is a measure of tolerance created by combining COLCOM, LIBCOM, and SPKCOM. These questions ask if a person who is a Communist should be allowed to teach in a college or university, to have a book in the public library, and to give a public speech. A person is high in tolerance if they would allow all three and low if they would not allow any. All others are medium in tolerance. (Not available for 1975.)
3 HIGH
4 MEDIUM HIGH
5 MEDIUM LOW
6 LOW
9 MISSING

TOLHOMO Tolerance-homosexual. This is a measure of tolerance created by combining COLHOMO, LIBHOMO, and SPKHOMO. These questions ask if a person who is a homosexual should be allowed to teach in a college or university, to have a book in the public library, and to give a public speech. A person is high in tolerance if they would allow all three and low if they would not allow any. All others are medium in tolerance. (Not available for 1975.)
3 HIGH
4 MEDIUM HIGH
5 MEDIUM LOW
6 LOW
9 MISSING

TOLMIL Tolerance-militarist. This is a measure of tolerance created by combining COLMIL, LIBMIL, and SPKMIL. These questions ask if a person who is a militarist should be allowed to teach in a college or university, to have a book in the public library, and to give a public speech. A person is high in tolerance if they would allow all three and low if they would not allow any. All others are medium in tolerance. (Not available for 1975.)
3 HIGH
4 MEDIUM HIGH
5 MEDIUM LOW
6 LOW
9 MISSING

TOLRAC Tolerance-racist. This is a measure of tolerance created by combining COLRAC, LIBRAC, and SPKRAC. These questions ask if a person who is a racist should be allowed to teach in a college or university, to have a book in the public library, and to give a public speech. A person is high in tolerance if they would allow all three and low if they would not allow any. All others are medium in tolerance. (Not available for 1975.)
3 HIGH
4 MEDIUM HIGH
5 MEDIUM LOW
6 LOW
9 MISSING


Footnote 1 -- INCOME91 was used for 1991, INCOME86 was used for 1989, INCOME82 was used for 1982, and INCOME was used for 1975. While the categories are different, they can be recoded to allow comparisons over time.

Footnote 2 -- RINCOM91 was used for 1991, RINCOM86 was used for 1989, RINCOM82 was used for 1982, and RINCOME was used for 1975. While the categories are different, they can be recoded to allow comparisons over time.

Footnote 3 -- In 1975, this question was asked of whites only. In 1982, 1989, and 1996, this question was asked of all races. This must be kept in mind when comparing data over time.


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