SSRIC Teaching Resources Depository
Standard Cross Cultural Survey
Philip Silverman, California State University, Bakersfield

SCCS Codebook: Subsistence Economy and Supportive Practices

© The Author, 1998; Last Modified 14 August 1998

George P. Murdock and Diana O. Morrow. 1970. Subsistence Economy and Supportive Practices: Cross-Cultural Codes 1. ETHNOLOGY 9:302-330.

Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.

This file presents a body of coded cultural data pertaining to the derivation, transportation, preservation, and storage of food in a typical (or focal) community in each of the 186 SCCS societies. The reader who uses the coded materials should bear in mind two warnings. First, since the data for each society have been assessed or "pinpointed" with reference to a particular local group at a particular date, the codes may not hold true for the larger society as a whole. For such complex and diversified cultures as those of the Burmese, Chinese, Egyptians, Japanese, Russians, Turks, and Vietnamese, for example, the indicated absence of such traits as banks, fishing, improved highways, markets, and motorized land and water transport, however valid for the pinpointed locality, may actually be misrepresentative of the total society. Second, since the data were coded primarily with reference to food or subsistence, the reader should not assume that the codes adequately reflect the actual importance of such activities as trade, animal husbandry, or transportation in the total culture. Variable 5, for example, assesses only the contribution of animal husbandry to the food supply and ignores its importance in other respects, e.g., as a source of prestige or of products other than food.

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1.  INTERCOMMUNITY TRADE AS FOOD SOURCE

# of    Code    Descriptive
Cases   # =     Label    

        3       . =     Missing Data
        7       1 =     No Trade
        51      2 =     Food Imports absent although trade present

Food Imports present, and contribute:
        4       3 =     Salt or Minerals only
        81      4 =     <  10% of food (90% form local extractive sources)
        38      5 =     <  50% of food, and less than any single local source
        -       6 =     <  50% of food, and more than any single local source
        2       7 =     > 50% of food

2.  FOOD IMPORT ACQUISITION

        62      . =     Missing Data
        49      1 =     Direct individual exchanges
        10      2 =     Indirect individual exchanges
        28      3 =     Local markets
        34      4 =     Middlemen 
        3       5 =     Three or four of above


3.  AGRICULTURE- CONTRIBUTION TO LOCAL FOOD SUPPLY

        35      1 =     None
        3       2 =     Non-food Crops
        17      3 =     <  10% 
        12      4 =     <  50%, and less than any other single source, incl. trade
        42      5 =     <  50%, and more than any other single source, incl. trade
        77      6 =     Primarily agricultural


5.  ANIMAL HUSBANDRY- CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SUPPLY
        8       1 =     None  
        41      2 =     Present, not food source
        67      3 =     <  10% food supply  
        33      4 =     <  50% - chiefly meat  
        21      5 =     <  50% - chiefly dairy 
        S       6 =     <  50% - chiefly honey
        16      7 =     > 50% 


7.  FISHING- CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SUPPLY

        2       . =     Missing Data
        27      1 =     None  
        79      2 =     <  10% food supply  
        55      3 =     <  50%, and less than any other single source, incl. trade
        10      4 =     <  50%, and more than any other single source, incl. trade
        13      5 =     > 50%


9.  HUNTING- CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SUPPLY

        4       . =     Missing Data
        18      1 =     None  
        3       2 =     Not food source
        85      3 =     <  10% food supply  
        61      4 =     <  50%, and less than any other single source, incl. trade
        8       5 =     <  50%, and more than any other single source, incl. trade
        7       6 =     > 50% 


11.  GATHERING- CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SUPPLY

        4       . =     Missing Data
        16      1 =     None  
        116     2 =     <  10% food supply  
        40      3 =     <  50%, and less than any other single source, incl. trade
        7       4 =     <  50%, and more than any other single source, incl. trade
        3       5 =     > 50% 


13.  LAND TRANSPORT (especially regarding food transport)

        1       . =     Missing Data
        108     1 =     Human Carriers, incl. tumpline
        41      2 =     Pack Animals
        13      3 =     Draft Animals (sleds, travois)
        12      4 =     Animal Drawn Wheeled vehicles
        11      5 =     Motorized vehicles


15.  WATER TRANSPORT

        5       . =     Missing Data
        20      1 =     None, but feasible  note: 1 & 2 should be reversed
        56      2 =     Not feasible
        10      3 =     Floats or rafts
        73      4 =     Human powered craft 
        20      5 =     Sail powered craft
        2       6 =     Motorized craft


17.  MONEY (MEDIA OF EXCHANGE) AND CREDIT

        3       . =     Missing Data
        77      1 =     No media of exchange or money
        12      2 =     Domestically usable articles as media of exchange
263 =   Tokens of conventional value as media of exchange
424 =   Foreign coinage or paper currency 
265 =   Indigenous coinage or paper currency


18.  CREDIT SOURCE

        17      . =     Missing Data
        113     1 =     Personal loans between friends or relatives
        26      2 =     Internal money lending specialists
        23      3 =     External money lending specialists
        7       5 =     Banks or comparable institutions


20.  FOOD STORAGE

        4       . =     Missing Data
        36      1 =     None  
        129     2 =     Individual households 
        7       3 =     Communal facilities
        3       4 =     Political agent controlled repositories
        7       5 =     Economic agent controlled repositories


21.  FOOD SURPLUS VIA STORAGE

                . =     Missing Data
        69      1 =     None or barely adequate  
        84      2 =     Simple or adequate 
        33      3 =     Complex or More than adequate


        INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD

Barry, Herbert, III, and Leonora M. Paxson.  1971.  Infancy and Early 
Childhood: Cross-Cultural Codes 2. ETHNOLOGY 10: 466-508.

Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors. 
  
Variables 23-32 deal with infancy only, from the first year until the 
transition to early childhood (see 38-39, 42, 44), usually at 12-18 
months.  The early and late infancy periods of variables 24-27 refer 
to the first few months after birth versus the period after crawling 
begins, usually around 9 months. Variables 33-38 include both infancy and 
early childhood, the latter usually to the age of 4-5 years. Variables 
39-50 deal with the transition to childhood, around 12-18 months.  
Variables 51-60 provide a comparison of infancy and childhood. 


23.  SLEEPING PROXIMITY OF PARENTS TO INFANT

        13      . =     Missing Data
         -      1 =     Mo and Fa in different room than infant
        12      2 =     Mo same room (not bed) as infant, Fa different room
         -      3 =     Mo same room (not bed) as infant, Fa unspecified
        30      4 =     Mo same room (not bed) as infant, Fa different bed 
        55      5 =     Mo, Fa same room as infant, beds not specified 
        24      6 =     Mo same bed as infant, Fa different room 
        5       7 =     Mo same bed as infant, Fa not specified
        24      8 =     Mo same bed as infant, Fa same room  
        23      9 =     Mo and Fa in same bed as infant
  

24.  BODILY RESTRICTIVENESS - EARLY INFANCY

        55      . =     Missing Data
        42      1 =     None except in emergency
        1       2 =     Loose confinement - Tether or playpen  
        21      3 =     Limited space - Bed or hammock   
        41      4 =     Movement limited - Swaddling, heavy blankets
        26      5 =     Often Bound - Cradle Board


25.  BODILY RESTRICTIVENESS - LATER INFANCY

        63      . =     Missing Data
        61      1 =     None except in emergency
        8       2 =     Loose confinement - Tether or playpen  
        14      3 =     Limited space - Bed or hammock
        23      4 =     Movement limited - Swaddling, heavy blankets
        17      5 =     Often Bound - Cradle Board


26.  BODILY CONTACT - EARLY INFANCY

        65      . =     Missing Data
        3       1 =     Limited to routine and precautionary care
        16      2 =     Occasionally
        33      3 =     Up to 1/2 time 
        49      4 =     > 1/2 time 
        20      5 =     Almost Constantly 


27.  BODILY CONTACT - LATE INFANCY
  
        69      . =     Missing Data
        3       1 =     Limited to routine and precautionary care
        15      2 =     Occasionally
        41      3 =     Up to 1/2 time
        43      4 =     > 1/2 time 
        15      5 =     Almost Constantly


31.  INFANT CRYING- RESPONSE

        83      . =     Missing Data
        3       1 =     Indifferent or punitive
        3       2 =     Slow or perfunctory, nurturant 
        19      3 =     Speedy but inconsistently nurturant
        67      4 =     Generally speedy, nurturant
        11      5 =     Always speedy, nurturant


32.  INFANT CRYING- AMOUNT 

        139     . =     Missing Data
        16      1 =     Very Infrequent and brief 
        10      2 =     Infrequent and short 
        9       3 =     Infrequent and prolonged
        11      4 =     Frequent and short
        1       5 =     Frequent and prolonged


33.  CHILDHOOD PAIN INFLICTION

        38      . =     Missing Data
        17      1 =     Absent
        37      2 =     Only neonatally or very mild pain 
        63      3 =     Occasional mild pain 
        25      4 =     Frequent mild pain or infrequent severe pain
        6       5 =     Frequent pain
        -       6 =     Very painful


34.  POST-PARTUM SEX TABOO

        52      . =     Missing data
        2       1 =     Intercourse expected soon after birth
        7       2 =     None
        29      3 =     1 month or less
        42      4 =     6 months or less
        12      5 =     1 year or less
        20      6 =     2 years or less
        22      7 =     > 2 years


35.  CEREMONIALISM SURROUNDING CHILD, BEYOND NUCLEAR FAMILY

        7       . =     Missing Data
        20      1 =     None
        73      2 =     Only within first 2 months  
        56      3 =     One occasion at later age
        20      4 =     Two or more ceremonies
        10      5 =     Prominent


36.  MAGICAL PROTECTIVENESS APPLIED TO PARENTS AND CHILD

        8       . =     Missing Data
        8       1 =     None
        22      2 =     Only neonatal period, e.g., couvade
        76      3 =     Slight, neonatally and later  
        66      4 =     Moderate, neonatally and later
        6       5 =     Exaggerated, neonatally and later


37.  PHYSICAL PROTECTIVENESS AGAINST CHILDHOOD ILLNESS

        20      . =     Missing Data
        1       1 =     No special effort
        43      2 =     Slight
        79      3 =     Moderate, e.g., regular baths
        39      4 =     Some exceptional techniques, e.g., medicines, 
                        ointments, diapers
        4       5 =     Variety of exceptional techniques


39.  WEANING- AGE AND SEVERITY

        29      . =     Missing Date 
        103     1 =     > 2 years and gentle 
        27      2 =     > 2 years and severe 
        17      3 =     > 1 year and gentle  
        5       4 =     > 1 year and severe  
        3       5 =     > 6 months and gentle
        1       6 =     > 6 months and severe
        1       7 =     <  6 months and gentle
        -       8 =     <  6 months and severe



40.  MOTOR SKILLS- ENCOURAGEMENT IN CHILDHOOD

        109     . =     Missing Data
        2       1 =     Discourage or punish early development
        2       2 =     Ignore development
        22      3 =     No active assistance, but attention given
        42      4 =     Definite but inconsistent rewards
        9       5 =     Strong Encouragement and assistance



41.  AUTONOMY- ENCOURAGEMENT IN CHILDHOOD

        81      . =     Missing Data
        25      1 =     > 4 years and gradual
        3       2 =     > 4 years and abrupt 
        54      3 =     2-4 years and gradual
        23      4 =     2-4 years and abrupt, or < 2 years and gradual
        -       5 =     <  2 years and abrupt
                        *note: recode category 4


42.  ELIMINATION- ENCOURAGEMENT OF CONTROL IN CHILDHOOD

        123     0 =     None
        7       1 =     3-5 years
        27      2 =     > 18 months
        9       3 =     > 1 year 
        7       4 =     > 6 months 
        13      5 =     <  6 months 


43.  COVERING GENITALS- AGE

        50      0 =     Even adults uncovered
        85      1 =     Very late
        14      2 =     Late
        2       3 =     > 1 year 
        1       4 =     <  6 months 
        34      5 =     After birth

44.  WEANING- AGE OF ONSET

        30      . =     Missing Data
        19      1 =     up to 12 months
        12      2 =     13 - 20 months
        67      3 =     21 - 24
        6       4 =     25 - 30
        36      5 =     31 - 36
        9       6 =     37 - 42
        7       7 =     43 - 48
        -       8 =     49 - 60
        -       9 =     61 - 72


45.  WEANING- AGE OF TERMINATION

        30      . =     Missing Data
        7       1 =     up to 12 months
        5       2 =     13 - 20
        38      3 =     21 - 24
        8       4 =     25 - 30
        64      5 =     31 - 36
        16      6 =     37 - 42
        14      7 =     43 - 48
        4       8 =     49 - 60
        -       9 =     61 - 72 months  


51.  NON-MATERNAL RELATIONSHIPS, INFANCY

        24      . =     Missing Data
        5       1 =     Almost Exclusively Mother
        81      2 =     Principally Mother, others minor roles
        63      3 =     Principally Mother, others important roles  
        10      4 =     Mother < 1/2 care
        2       5 =     Mother minor but significant
        1       6 =     Mother minimal except for nursing


52.  NON-MATERNAL RELATIONSHIPS, EARLY CHILDHOOD

        50      . =     Missing Data
        -       1 =     Almost Exclusively Mother
        36      2 =     Principally Mother, others important roles  
        60      3 =     Mother < 1/2 care
        38      4 =     Primarily others 
        2       5 =     Exclusively others


53.  ROLE OF FATHER, INFANCY

        32      . =     Missing Data            
        8       1 =     Distant  
        27      2 =     Rarely close 
        72      3 =     Occasionally close
        44      4 =     Frequently close  
        3       5 =     Regularly close


54.  ROLE OF FATHER, EARLY CHILDHOOD

        36      . =     Missing Data            
        4       1 =     Distant  
        18      2 =     Rarely Close 
        46      3 =     Occasionally Close
        73      4 =     Frequently Close  
        9       5 =     Regularly Close


55.  PRINCIPAL RELATIONSHIPS, INFANCY CARETAKERS AND COMPANIONS

        48      . =     Missing Data
        31      1 =     Children, Females       
        4       2 =     Children, unspecified
        11      3 =     Children, both sexes 
        60      4 =     Adult Family, Females   
        -       5 =     Adult Family, unspecified
        14      6 =     Adult Family, both sexes
        17      7 =     Others, Female          
        1       9 =     Others, both sexes


56.  PRINCIPAL RELATIONSHIPS, EARLY CHILDHOOD CARETAKERS AND COMPANIONS

        45      . =     Missing Data
        10      1 =     Peer Group, single sex
        1       2 =     Peer Group, unspecified
        43      3 =     Peer Group, both sexes 
        22      4 =     Older Children, single sex
        8       5 =     Older Children, unspecified 
        22      6 =     Older Children, both sexes  
        14      7 =     Adults, single sex
        21      9 =     Adults, both sexes


57.  GENERAL INDULGENCE, INFANCY  (taking 51 and 52 into account)

        67      . =     Missing Data
        1       1 =     Severe or neglectful
        8       2 =     Lesser severity
        19      3 =     Occasional indulgence
        80      4 =     Greater  
        11      5 =     Highly affectionate  


58.  GENERAL INDULGENCE, INFANCY- MODIFIERS OF GENERAL SCALE TYPES

        67      . =     Missing Data
        36      1 =     Low in category
        34      2 =     Medium in category
        49      3 =     High in category 
                 *Note: Combine 57 and 58


59.  GENERAL INDULGENCE, EARLY CHILDHOOD (taking 51 and 52 into account)

        54      . =     Missing Data
        2       1 =     Severe
        24      2 =     Less Severity
        32      3 =     Occasional Severity  
        64      4 =     Greater Leniency  
        10      5 =     Consistently Lenient 


60.  GENERAL INDULGENCE, EARLY CHILDHOOD:  MODIFIERS OF GENERAL SCALE TYPES

        54      . =     Missing Data
        43      1 =     Low in Category
        44      2 =     Medium in Category
        45      3 =     High in Category
*Note: Combine 59 and 60 to get a fine-scaled variable


        SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION

George P. Murdock and Suzanne F. Wilson.  1972.  Settlement Patterns and 
Community Organization: Cross Cultural Codes 3. ETHNOLOGY 11: 54-295. 

Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.


61.  FIXITY OF SETTLEMENT

        28      1 =     Migratory 
        21      2 =     Semi-nomadic--fixed then migratory
        6       3 =     Rotating among 2 or more  fixed
        14      4 =     Semi-sedentary--fixed core, some migratory
        15      5 =     Impermanent--periodically moved
        102     6 =     Permanent
 

63.  COMMUNITY SIZE
  
        1       . =     Missing Data
        28      1 =      < 50 
        28      2 =       50-99
        45      3 =      100-199  
        32      4 =      200-399  
        29      5 =      400-999  
        15      6 =      1,000-4,999
        5       7 =      5,000-49,999  
        3       8 =      > 50,000 
 

64.  POPULATION DENSITY
 
        2       . =     Missing Data
        36      1 =      < 1 person per 5 sq. mile
        22      2 =      1 person per 1-5 sq. mile
        25      3 =      1-5 persons per sq. mile
        27      4 =      1-25  persons per sq. mile
        34      5 =      26-100 persons per sq. mile
        20      6 =      101-500 persons per sq. mile
        20      7 =      over 500 persons per sq. mile


69.  MARITAL RESIDENCE
 
        1       . =     Missing data
        38      1 =     Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin
        8       2 =     Avunculocal - with husband's mother's brother's kin 
        118     3 =     Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin  
        12      4 =     Ambilocal - with either wife's or husband's kin 
        9       5 =     Neolocal - separate from kin


70.  DESCENT - MEMBERSHIP IN CORPORATE KINSHIP GROUPS

        26      1 =     Matrilineal - through female line
        10      2 =     Double descent:   separate groups through male and female 
                        lines
        75      3 =     Patrilineal - through male line
        6       4 =     Ambilineal - through one parent in each generation 
        69      5 =     Bilateral - not a corporate kin group
 

73.  COMMUNITY INTEGRATION

        6       1 =     Lacking or low compared to community segments or larger 
                        polity
        26      2 =     By common residence only 
        16      3 =     Common Identity, dialect, subculture
        78      4 =     Overlapping Kin ties  
        8       5 =     Common social or economic status
        20      6 =     Common political ties 
        32      7 =     Common religious ties 

74.  PROMINENT COMMUNITY CEREMONIALS

        67      1 =     Rites of passage 
        69      2 =     Calendrical 
        36      3 =     Magical or religious  
        14      4 =     Individual sponsored and communally attended (e.g., potlatch)


75.  CEREMONIAL ELEMENTS

        54      1 =     Feasting and/or drinking 
        10      2 =     Exchanges other than food
        51      3 =     Entertainment  
        57      4 =     Sacrifice other than human 
        13      5 =     Human sacrifice
        1       6 =     Masochistic behavior  


77.  LOCAL POLITICAL SUCCESSION, PRIMARY
 
        3       . =     Missing data
        17      1 =     No headman or council 
        10      2 =     By appointment 
        10      3 =     Seniority 
        2       4 =     Divination
        37      5 =     Informal consensus 
        22      6 =     Electoral process  
        61      7 =     Patrilineal 
        14      8 =     Matrilineal 
        10      9 =     Hereditary with personal qualifications
 
 
79.  POLYGAMY (see 68)

        2       1 =     Polyandry - primarily monogamous with some plural husbands
        31      2 =     Monogamy  
        96      3 =     Polygyny < 20% plural wives (if more frequent than polyandry)
        57      4 =     Polygyny > 20% plural wives (if more frequent than polyandry)
 

80.  FAMILY SIZE

        7       1 =     Nuclear Monogamous 
        70      2 =     Nuclear Polygynous 
        16      3 =     Stem Family 
        59      4 =     Small extended 
        34      5 =     Large extended


        

POLITICAL ORGANIZATION

Tuden, Arthur, and Catherine Marshall.  1972.  Settlement Patterns and 
Community Organization: Cross Cultural Codes 3. ETHNOLOGY 11:436-464.  
Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.


83.  LEVELS OF SOVEREIGNTY

        2       . =     Missing data
        98      1 =     Stateless society
        31      2 =     Sovereignty 1st hierarchical level up
        14      3 =     Sovereignty 2nd hierarchical level up
        41      4 =     Sovereignty 3rd or higher hierarchical level   


84.  HIGHER POLITICAL ORGANIZATION

        3       . =     Missing data
        85      1 =     Absent  
        28      2 =     Peace group 
        46      3 =     Alliances 
        7       4 =     Confederation    
        17      5 =     International organization 


88.  ADVISORY BODIES

        5       . =     Missing data
        98      1 =     Absence of sovereignty
        28      2 =     Absent  
        14      3 =     Relatives of executive
        2       4 =     Favorites of executive
        -       5 =     Secret society   
        13      6 =     Subordinate groups 
        3       7 =     Hereditary
        23      8 =     Subordinate functionaries


89.  JUDICIARY

        3       . =     Missing data
        103     1 =     Absent  
        6       2 =     Not local 
        49      3 =     Executive 
        23      4 =     Appointed by executive
        1       5 =     Priesthood
        1       6 =     Hereditary


90.  POLICE

        6       . =     Missing data
        124     1 =     Not specialized  
        4       2 =     Incipient specialization   
        4       3 =     Retainers of chiefs
        6       4 =     Military
        42      5 =     Specialized 


91.  ADMINISTRATIVE HIERARCHY

        3       . =     Missing data
        98      1 =     Absent  
        7       2 =     Popular Assemblies 
        8       3 =     Heads of kin groups
        38      4 =     Heads of decentralized territorial divisions  
        31      5 =     Heads of centralized territorial divisions
        1       6 =     Part of centralized system


93.  POLITICAL POWER- MOST IMPORTANT SOURCE

        3       . =     Missing data
        90      0 =     Direct subsistence production
        11      1 =     Warfare wealth
        3       2 =     Tribute or taxes
        13      3 =     Slaves
        20      4 =     Contributions of free citizens
        12      5 =     Large land-holdings
        14      6 =     Political office
        6       7 =     Foreign Commerce
        11      8 =     Capitalistic enterprises
        3       9 =     Priestly services


        DIVISION OF LABOR

Murdock, George P., and Caterina Provost.  1973.  Factors in the Division 
of Labor by Sex: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. ETHNOLOGY 12:203-225. 
Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.


FOOD COLLECTION
 99.  VEGETAL
100.  EGGS, INSECTS, AND/OR SMALL LAND FAUNA
101.  SHELLFISH/SMALL AQUATIC FAUNA
102.  HONEY
103.  FOWLING
104.  FISHING
105.  TRAPPING
106.  LARGE LAND FAUNA
107.  LARGE AQUATIC FAUNA    

                                                Number of Cases for Each Variable:
                                99      100     101     102     103     104     105     106     107
 . = Task Present, sex ?        34      48      22      20      2       10      1       0       2
-1 = No data on task            7       53      24      80      29      4       15      6       9
 0 = Task absent                10      18      85      38      16      29      20      36      129
 1 = Males exclusively          6       27      11      39      131     83      136     139     48
 2 = Males predominantly        4       3       4       5       5       45      12      5       0
 3 = Equally                    18      9       1       2       3       8       1       0       0
 4 = Females predominant        42      13      12      0       0       5       1       0       0
 5 = Females exclusively        65      15      27      2       0       2       0       0       0




FOOD PRODUCTION
108.  LAND CLEARANCE
109.  SOIL PREPARATION
110.  PLANTING
111.  CROP TENDING
112.  HARVESTING
113.  SMALL DOMESTIC ANIMALS
114.  LARGE DOMESTIC ANIMALS
115.  MILKING

                                                Number of Cases for Each Variable:
                                108     109     110     111     112     113     114     115
. = Task Present, sex ?         1       1       0       3       0       70      10      10
-1 = No data on task            2       2       1       4       1       6       2       1
0 = Task absent                 44      49      44      48      44      13      76      127
1 = Males exclusively           95      66      27      22      10      19      54      15
2 = Males predominantly         34      27      35      23      37      8       24      2
3 = Equally                     6       14      33      24      34      14      14      8
4 = Females predominantly       3       17      26      30      34      12      3       2
5 = Females exclusively         1       10      20      32      26      44      3       21


FOOD PREPARATION
116.  VEGETAL
117.  BUTCHERING
118.  PRESERVATION
119.  DRINKS
120.  DAIRY
121.  COOKING
                                        Number of Cases for Each Variable:
                                        116     117     118     119     120     121
  . = Task Present, sex ?               2       16      64      42      20      1
-1 = No data on task                    8       19      25      16      8       1
 0 = Task absent                        2       8       31      37      130     0
 1 = Males exclusively                  3       122     18      15      4       0
 2 = Males predominantly                1       9       2       3       0       2
 3 = Equally                            4       4       3       4       0       2
 4 = Females predominantly              21      4       3       4       0       63
 5 = Females exclusively                145     4       40      65      24      117


EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES
122.  MINING/QUARRYING
123.  FUEL GATHERING
124.  LUMBERING
125.  WATER FETCHING
                                        Number of Cases for Each Variable:
                                        122     123     124     125
 . = Task Present, sex ?                6       11      16      25
-1 = No data on task                    39      7       17      1
 0 = Task absent                        106     1       14      0
 1 = Males exclusively                  31      25      135     4
 2 = Males predominantly                1       12      4       4
 3 = Equally                            2       12      0       8
 4 = Females predominantly              0       24      0       13
 5 = Females exclusively                1       94      0       131


INTERMEDIATE PROCESSING
126.  SKINS
127.  SPINNING
128.  LOOM WEAVING
129.  SMELTING
                                        Number of Cases for Each Variable:
                                        126     127     128     129
 . = Task Present, sex ?                44      9       1       0
-1 = No data on task                    13      30      16      24
 0 = Task absent                        48      56      81      125
 1 = Males exclusively                  39      7       24      37
 2 = Males predominantly                4       3       0       0
 3 = Equally                            2       4       6       0
 4 = Females predominantly              5       5       8       0
 5 = Females exclusively                31      72      50      0


MANUFACTURING
130.  MAT-MAKING
131.  NET-MAKING
132.  BASKET-MAKING
133.  ROPE OR CORDAGE
134.  LEATHER
135.  CLOTHING
                                        Number of Cases for Each Variable:
                                130     131     132     133     134     135
 . = Task Present, sex ?        31      45      19      56      32      5
-1 = No data on task            23      31      16      16      23      23
 0 = Task absent                29      45      21      3       57      36
 1 = Males exclusively          30      42      37      62      35      16
 2 = Males predominantly        4       2       9       7       3       4
 3 = Equally                    9       5       15      18      2       11
 4 = Females predominantly      5       1       18      5       5       13
 5 = Females exclusively        55      15      51      19      29      78


MANUFACTURING (Cont.)
136.  POTTERY
137.  WOOD
138.  BONE
139.  STONE
140.  METAL
141.  MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

                                Number of Cases for Each Variable:
                                136     137     138     139     140     141
 . = Task Present, sex ?        6       17      44      31      0       74
-1 = No data on task            14      4       46      43      7       16
 0 = Task absent                61      1       14      39      93      8
 1 = Males exclusively          14      159     71      67      85      83
 2 = Males predominantly        5       3       7       0       1       3
 3 = Equally                    6       1       2       6       0       1
 4 = Females predominantly      6       1       0       0       0       0
 5 = Females exclusively        74      0       2       0       0       1


MISCELLANEOUS
142.  FIRE
143.  LAUNDERING
144.  BODILY MUTILATION
145.  BONE-SETTING/SURGERY
146.  BURDEN CARRYING
147.  BOAT-BUILDING
148.  HOUSE-BUILDING
                                        Number of Cases for Each Variable:
                                142     143     144     145     146     147     148
 . = Task Present, sex ?        96      9       45      17      6       5       6
-1 = No data on task            1       59      22      88      31      11      1
 0 = Task absent                3       52      13      37      3       79      1
 1 = Males exclusively          40      5       36      34      18      84      105
 2 = Males predominantly        6       0       4       6       12      3       30
 3 = Equally                    16      4       48      4       46      3       14
 4 = Females predominant        4       8       6       0       34      0       9
 5 = Females exclusively        20      49      12      0       36      1       20


        CULTURAL COMPLEXITY

Murdock, George P., and Caterina Provost.  1971.  Measurement of Cultural 
Complexity.  ETHNOLOGY 12:379-392.
Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.


149.  SCALE 1:  WRITING AND RECORDS

        73      1 =     None  
        49      2 =     Mnemonic devices  
        21      3 =     Non-written records
        12      4 =     True writing; no records 
        31      5 =     True writing; records 
  

150.  SCALE 2:  FIXITY OF RESIDENCE

        28      1 =     Nomadic  
        21      2 =     Semi-nomadic  
         20     3 =     Semi-sedentary
         15     4 =     Sedentary; impermanent
        102     5 =     Sedentary
  

151.  SCALE 3:  AGRICULTURE

         38     1 =     None  
         17     2 =     10% food supply
         11     3 =     10%; secondary 
         63     4 =     Primary; not intensive
         57     5 =     Primary; intensive

152.  SCALE 4:  URBANIZATION

         56     1 =     fewer than 100 persons
         43     2 =     100-199 persons
         33     3 =     200-399 persons
         30     4 =     400-999 persons
         24     5 =     1000 persons



153.  SCALE 5:  TECHNOLOGICAL SPECIALIZATION

         39     1 =     No pottery, looms, metalworking
         27     2 =     Pottery only 
         31     3 =     Loom weaving but not metalworking
         56     4 =     Metalworking, weavers or potters absent
         33     5 =     Smiths, weavers, potters


154.  SCALE 6:  LAND TRANSPORT

        108     1 =     Human only   
         42     2 =     Pack animals 
         14     3 =     Draft animals
         11     4 =     Animal-drawn vehicles 
         11     5 =     Automotive vehicles

155.  SCALE 7:  MONEY

         77     1 =     None  
         14     2 =     Domestically usable articles
         43     3 =     Alien currency 
         27     4 =     Elementary forms  
         25     5 =     True money


156.  SCALE 8:  DENSITY OF POPULATION

         58     1 =     less than 1 person/square mile 
         25     2 =     1-5 persons/square mile 
         28     3 =     5.1-25 persons/square mile  
         35     4 =     26-100 persons/square mile  
         40     5 =     100 persons/square mile


157.  SCALE 9:  POLITICAL INTEGRATION

         11     1 =     None  
         72     2 =     Autonomous local communities
         46     3 =     1 level above community  
         28     4 =     2 levels above community 
         29     5 =     3 levels above community

158.  SCALE 10:  SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

         65     1 =     Egalitarian  
         52     2 =     Hereditary slavery
         19     3 =     2 social classes, no castes/slavery  
         20     4 =     2 social classes, castes/slavery
         30     5 =     3 social classes or castes, with or without slavery




        SEXUAL ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES

Broude, Gwen, and Sarah J. Greene.  1976.  Cross-Cultural Codes on Twenty 
Sexual Attitudes and Practices. ETHNOLOGY 15:409-429.
Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.


165.  PREMARITAL SEX ATTITUDES-  FEMALE

        56      . =      Missing data
        30      1 =      Expected
        28      2 =      Tolerated
        22      3 =      Mildly disapproved
        11      4 =      Moderately disapproved
        4       5 =      Disallowed
        35      6 =      Strongly disapproved


166.  FREQUENCY OF PREMARITAL SEX-  MALE

        84      . =      Missing data
        60      1 =      Universal
        18      2 =      Moderate
        11      3 =      Occasional
        13      4 =      Uncommon


167.  FREQUENCY OF PREMARITAL SEX-  FEMALE

        77      . =      Missing data
        51      1 =      Universal
        19      2 =      Moderate
        16      3 =      Occasional
        23      4 =      Uncommon



169.  EXTRAMARITAL SEX

        77      . =      Missing data
        13      1 =      Single standard-  both allowed
        48      2 =      Double standard-  husband only
        24      3 =      Double standard-  both forbidden, women punished more
        24      4 =      Single standard- both condemned equally


172.  WIFE-SHARING
        83      . =      Missing data
        4       1 =      For any reason
        11      2 =      Vis-à-vis specific group men
        5       3 =      Vis-à-vis specific man
        7       4 =      Occasionally for sex gratification
        3       5 =      For husband's economic benefit
        11      6 =      Aside from sex gratification
        62      7 =      None


CLIMATE DATA FROM WEATHER STATIONS

Whiting, John W. M. (New Codes: Not Previously Published)

These codes are taken from Climate maps, for weather stations closest to 
the time and place of each societal focus.  


186.  MEAN ANNUAL TEMPERATURE (EC)

                 99 =   Missing data
                -16 =   Min
                 29 =   Max


187.  HOTTEST MONTH MEAN TEMPERATURE (EC)

                99 =    Missing data
                 3 =    Min
                46 =    Max


188.  COLDEST MONTH MEAN TEMPERATURE (EC)

                99 =    Missing data
             -28 =      Min
                44 =    Max


189.  MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION (mm)

                99 =    Missing data
                 0 =    Min
            4819 =  Max

192.  HIGHEST PRECIPITATION IN WETTEST MONTH (mm)

                 99 =   Missing data
                 0 =    Min
             670 =      Max



193.  LOWEST PRECIPITATION IN DRIEST MONTH (mm)

                 99 =   Missing data
                 0 =    Min
             295 =      Max


196.  NUMBER OF DRY MONTHS
          
                99 =    Missing data
        76       0 =    None 
         8       1 =    
        13       2 =    
        10       3 =    
        19       4 =    
        13       5 =    
        15       6 =    
        10       7 =    
         8       8 =    
         1       9 =    
         3      10 =    
         1      11 =    
         9      12 =    
          

199.  NUMBER OF FROST MONTHS 

                99 =    Missing data
        158     0 =     None 
         1      1 =     
         -      2 =     
         -      3 =     
         -      4 =     
         1      5 =     
         1      6 =      
         7      7 =     
         3      8 =     
         6      9 =     
         2      10 =    
         5      11 =    
         2      12 =    


        ETHNOGRAPHIC ATLAS PART 1

Murdock, George P.  1962-1971.  Serial Installments in ETHNOLOGY.
Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.


 200.  REGION

        28      1 =     Africa Exclusive of Madagascar and the Sahara
        28      2 =     Circum-Mediterranean North Africa, Europe, Turkey, 
                        Caucasus, Semitic Near East
        34      3 =     East Eurasia including Madagascar and Islands in Indian Ocean
        31      4 =     Insular Pacific including Australia, Indonesia, Formosa, 
                        Philippines
        33      5 =     North America indigenous societies to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec
        32      6 =     South America including Antilles, Yucatan, Central America


208.  MODE OF MARRIAGE

        0       99 =    Missing data
        71      1 =     Bride-Price or -Wealth, to bride's family
        24      2 =     Bride-Service, to bride's family
        16      3 =     Token Bride-price
        15      4 =     Gift Exchange, reciprocal
        9       5 =     Sister or Female Relative Exchanged for Bride
        42      6 =     Absence of Consideration
        9       7 =     Dowry, to bride from her family
        146     9 =     No Alternative


 221.  LARGEST PATRILINEAL KIN GROUP
 223.  LARGEST MATRILINEAL KIN GROUP
                                         Patrilineal   Matrilineal
                                         Lrgst Exog.   Lrgst  Exog.
. =  Missing Data                               1               1
1 = None                                        104           144
2 = Exogamous Group                             0               3
3 = Lineages in a Single Community              18              7
4 = Sibs (Lineages in Mult.i Communities)       42              15
5 = Phratries (Maximally Extended Sibs)         15              5
6 = Moieties                                    6               11


 225.  COGNATIC KIN GROUPS

        1        99 =   Missing Data
        48      1 =     Bilateral descent
        27      2 =     Kindreds: ego-oriented bilateral kin-groups
        0       3 =     Ambilineal descent: lacking true ramages
        7       4 =     Ramages: ancestor oriented ambilineal groups
        2       5 =     Exogamous ramages
        4       6 =     Quasi-lineages: filiation based, not descent
        97      9 =     Unilineal descent groups


 238.  HIGH GODS:  Defined as a spiritual being who is believed to have 
         created all reality and/or to be its ultimate governor, even though 
         his/her sole act was to create other spirits who, in turn,  created 
         or control the natural world.

        18      . =     Missing data
        68      1 =     Absent or not reported
        47      2 =     Present but not active in human affairs
        13      3 =     Present and active in human affairs but not supportive 
                        of human morality
        40      4 =     Present, active, and specifically supportive of human morality


239.  GAMES:  The code below can also be expressed in a semi-order or 
        partial Guttman scale, as there are five latent classes or dominant 
        scale types:  for P C S, these 
        are - - -   + - -   + + -   + - +   + + +

        14      . =     Missing data
        12      1 =     None of the three types
        64      2 =     Physical skill
         1      3 =     Chance
         4      4 =     Strategy
        47      5 =     Skill and chance
        22      6 =     Skill and strategy
         0      7 =     Chance and strategy
        22      8 =     All


241.  MALE GENITAL MUTILATIONS
        
         5      . =     Missing data
        131     0 =     Absent
         5      1 =     Within first two months after birth
         1      2 =     Two months to two years
         5      3 =     Two to five years
        16      4 =     Six to ten years
        17      5 =     11 to 15 years
         2      6 =     16 to 25 years
        0       7 =     25 to 50 years
         1      8 =     After 50 years
         3      9 =     Normal age unclear
        

242.  SEGREGATION OF ADOLESCENT BOYS
        
        29      . =     Missing data
        108     1 =     Absence
        19      2 =     Partial
         8      3 =     Complete, with relatives outside nuclear family
         4      4 =     Complete, with non-relatives
        18      5 =     Complete, with peers




RULE OR PRACTICE FOR INHERITANCE
278.  INHERITANCE OF REAL PROPERTY (LAND)
279.  INHERITANCE OF MOVABLE PROPERTY
                                                                278     279
                                                                Land    Movables
. =     Missing data                                            31      34
1 =     Absence of individual property rights or rules          59      21
2 =     Matrilineal (sister's sons)                             4       5
3 =     Other matrilineal heirs (e.g., younger brothers)        9       9
4 =     Children, with daughters receiving less                 12      14
5 =     Children, equally for both sexes                        9       22
6 =     Other patrilineal heirs (e.g., younger brothers)        8       9
7 =     Patrilineal (sons)                                      54      72


DISTRIBUTION OF INHERITANCE AMONG INDIVIDUALS OF SAME CATEGORY
280.  INHERITANCE OF REAL PROPERTY
281.  INHERITANCE OF MOVABLE PROPERTY
                                                                280     281
                                                                Land    Movables
99 = Missing data or absence of rights                          91      55
 1 = Equal or relatively equal                                  54      86
 2 = Exclusively or predominantly to the one adjudged 
     best qualified
                                                                6       6
 3 = Ultimogeniture (to the junior individual)                  4       5

 4 = Primogeniture (to the senior individual)                   28      27
 9 = Missing data   Note: Change 9 to 99                        3       7

        

285.  PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: WALL MATERIAL
        
        65      . =     Missing data
        12      1 =     Stone, stucco, concrete, or fired brick
        19      2 =     Plaster, mud and dung, or wattle and daub
        33      3 =     Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles
         1      4 =     Bark
         1      5 =     Hides or skin
         6      6 =     Felt, cloth, or other fabrics
        17      7 =     Mats, latticework, or wattle
        14      8 =     Grass, leaves, or other thatch
        17      9 =     Adobe, clay, or dried brick
        0       10)=    Open walls, including temporary screens
                 *)=    Walls indistinguishable from roof
                  *   Note: disaggregate 9 and 10

        
 287.  PREVAILING TYPE OF DWELLING: ROOFING MATERIALS
        
        10      . =     Missing data
         2      1 =     Stone or slate, or tile or fired brick
         3      2 =     Plaster, clay, mud and dung, or wattle and daub
        10      3 =     Wood, including logs, planks, poles, bamboo, or shingles
         6      4 =     Bark
         5      5 =     Hides or skin
         5      6 =     Felt, cloth, or other fabric
         9      7 =     Mats
        118     8 =     Grass, leaves, brush, or other thatch
        18      9 =     Earth or turf
                10)=    Ice or snow (combined with 9)
                  *   Note: disaggregate 9 and 10
        
        TRAITS INCULCATED IN CHILDHOOD

Barry, Herbert,III, Lili Josephson, Edith Lauer, and Catherine Marshall. 1976.  
Traits Inculcated in Childhood: Cross-Cultural Codes 5. ETHNOLOGY 15:83-114. 
Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.
 

294.  Fortitude: Early Boy
295.  Fortitude: Early Girl
296.  Fortitude: Late Boy
297.  Fortitude: Late Girl
                                                        Early                   Late
                                                        Boy     Girl            Boy     Girl
. = Missing data                                        46      55              31      41
0 = no inculcation, or opposite trait                   0       0               0       0
1 =                                                     0       1               0       0
2 =                                                     17      19              3       5
3 =                                                     16      17              5       11
4 =                                                     11      13              11      9
5 = moderately strong inculcation                       61      60              40      50
6 =                                                     24      15              49      44
7 =                                                     3       1               14      12
8 =                                                     6       3               24      12
9 =                                                     2       2               8       12
 extremely strong inculcation                           0       0               1       0


298.  Aggression: Early Boy 
299.  Aggression: Early Girl
300.  Aggression: Late Boy  
301.  Aggression: Late Girl 
                                                        Early                   Late
                                                        Boy     Girl            Boy     Girl
. = Missing data                                        53      68              38      58
0 = no inculcation, or opposite trait                   0       0               0       0
1 =                                                     6       7               4       5
2 =                                                     25      30              9       16
3 =                                                     14      15              11      16
4 =                                                     7       10              9       10
5 = moderately strong inculcation                       40      30              40      38
6 =                                                     28      17              43      26
7 =                                                     1       2               5       5
8 =                                                     8       5               19      10
9 =                                                     3       1               6       1
    extremely strong inculcation                        1       1               2       1

302.  Competitiveness: Early Boy
303.  Competitiveness: Early Girl
304.  Competitiveness: Late Boy  
305.  Competitiveness: Late Girl 
                                                        Early                   Late
                                                        Boy     Girl            Boy     Girl
. = Missing data                                        75      80              51      60
0 = no inculcation, or opposite trait                   6       6               5       5
1 =                                                     0       0               0       0
2 =                                                     21      21              15      17
3 =                                                     15      15              18      16
4 =                                                     9       9               9       10
5 = moderately strong inculcation                       38      35              42      44
6 =                                                     18      18              30      25
7 =                                                     2       1               2       1
8 =                                                     0       0               11      7
9 = strong inculcation                                  2       1               3       1



306.  Self-reliance: Early Boy 
307.  Self-reliance: Early Girl
308.  Self-reliance: Late Boy  
309.  Self-reliance: Late Girl 
                                                        Early                   Late
                                                        Boy     Girl            Boy     Girl
. = Missing data                                        31      33              26      33
0 = no inculcation, or opposite trait                   1       2               1       1
1 =                                                     7       8               4       5
2 =                                                     39      48              6       10
3 =                                                     27      29              5       15
4 =                                                     9       11              5       10
5 = moderately strong inculcation                       42      35              34      48
6 =                                                     16      12              39      34
7 =                                                     2       4               6       6
8 =                                                     10      4               48      19
9 =                                                     2       0               11      4
*   extremely strong inculcation  [10:]                 0       0               1       1



310.  Achievement: Early Boy 
311.  Achievement: Early Girl
312.  Achievement: Late Boy  
313.  Achievement: Late Girl 
                                                        Early                   Late
                                                        Boy     Girl            Boy     Girl
. = Missing data                                        40      50              24      33
0 = no inculcation or opposite trait                    1       1               0       0
1 =                                                     3       2               1       2
2 =                                                     49      49              14      7
3 =                                                     23      24              16      16
4 =                                                     4       4               8       8
5 = moderately strong inculcation                       44      36              46      51
6 =                                                     17      17              47      45
7 =                                                     1       1               3       4
8 =                                                     3       2               22      18
9 = strong inculcation                                  1       0               5       2


314.  Industry: Early Boy 

315.  Industry: Early Girl
316.  Industry: Late Boy  
317.  Industry: Late Girl 
                                                        Early                   Late
                                                        Boy     Girl            Boy     Girl
. = Missing data                                        20      21              11      11
0 = no inculcation or opposite trait                    4       3               0       0
1 =                                                     10      3               1       0
2 =                                                     83      62              10      4
3 =                                                     28      35              17      11
4 =                                                     14      13              16      6
5 = moderately strong inculcation                       20      35              69      41
6 =                                                     6       14              37      63
7 =                                                     0       0               3       8
8 =                                                     1       0               19      38
9 = strong inculcation                                  0       0               3       4




318.  Responsibility: Early Boy 
319.  Responsibility: Early Girl
320.  Responsibility: Late Boy  
321.  Responsibility: Late Girl 
                                                        Early                   Late
                                                        Boy     Girl            Boy     Girl
. = Missing data                                        35      36              25      28
0 = no inculcation or opposite trait                    11      4               3       0
1 =                                                     8       5               0       0
2 =                                                     73      63              15      3
3 =                                                     23      32              20      11
4 =                                                     6       5               15      12
5 = moderately strong inculcation                       21      33              49      50
6 =                                                     8       7               37      51
7 =                                                     0       0               2       3
8 =                                                     1       1               19      28
9 = strong inculcation                                  0       0               1       0



322.  Obedience: Early Boy 
323.  Obedience: Early Girl
324.  Obedience: Late Boy  
325.  Obedience: Late Girl 
                                                        Early                   Late
                                                        Boy     Girl            Boy     Girl
. = Missing data                                        26      25              24      24
0 = no inculcation or opposite trait                    2       -               1       -
1 =                                                     3       3               1       -
2 =                                                     27      23              15      10
3 =                                                     11      13              10      10
4 =                                                     14      11              12      11
5 = moderately strong inculcation                       45      44              45      45
6 =                                                     27      31              33      36
7 =                                                     2       2               2       3
8 =                                                     22      25              32      32
9 =                                                     4       5               8       11
      extremely strong inculcation  [10:]               3       4               3       4




326.  Self-restraint: Early Boy 
327.  Self-restraint: Early Girl
328.  Self-restraint: Late Boy  
329.  Self-restraint: Late Girl 
                                                        Early                   Late
                                                        Boy     Girl            Boy     Girl
. = Missing data                                        52      53              51      54
0 = no inculcation or opposite trait                    0       0               0       0
1 =                                                     6       7               1       1
2 =                                                     38      32              19      16
3 =                                                     35      31              19      16
4 =                                                     5       7               12      11
5 = moderately strong inculcation                       29      34              35      45
6 =                                                     13      14              26      26
7 =                                                     0       0               2       1
8 =                                                     8       7               20      13
9 = strong inculcation                                  0       1               1       3



330.  Sexual restraint: Early Boy 
331.  Sexual restraint: Early Girl
332.  Sexual restraint: Late Boy  
333.  Sexual restraint: Late Girl 
                                                        Early                   Late
                                                        Boy     Girl            Boy     Girl
. = Missing data                                        30      32              22      21
0 = no inculcation or opposite trait                    1       1               0       0
1 =                                                     14      11              7       4
2 =                                                     67      57              41      32
3 =                                                     22      19              7       18
4 =                                                     14      14              25      25
5 = moderately strong inculcation                       30      32              41      24
6 =                                                     7       14              15      27
7 =                                                     0       1               2       6
8 =                                                     1       5               6       18
9 =                                                     0       0               0       5
  extremely strong inculcation [10:]                    0       0               0       6




334.  Generosity

        82      . =     Missing data
        0       0 =     no inculcation or opposite trait
        1       1 =
        4       2 =
        6       3 =
        4       4 =
        24      5 =     moderately strong inculcation
        31      6 = 
        2       7 = 
        27      8 = 
        4       9 = 
        1             extremely strong inculcation



335.  Trust

        48      . =     Missing data
        1       0 =     no inculcation or opposite trait
        6       1 = 
        19      2 = 
        5       3 = 
        15      4 = 
        34      5 =     moderately strong inculcation
        18      6 = 
        11      7 = 
        25      8 = 
        3       9 = 
        1               extremely strong inculcation [10:]



336.  Honesty

        76      . =     Missing data
        1       0 =     no inculcation or opposite trait
        5       1 =
        18      2 =
        15      3 =
        12      4 =
        28      5 =     moderately strong inculcation
        16      6 =
        5       7 =
        8       8 =
        1       9 =
        1               extremely strong inculcation [10:]
        
AGENTS AND TECHNIQUES OF CHILD TRAINING

Barry, Herbert, III, Lili Josephson, Edith Lauer, and Catherine Marshall.  
1977.  Agents and Techniques for Child Training: Cross-Cultural Codes 6. 
ETHNOLOGY 16:191-230. 
Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.


353.  Sex of Parents in Residence: Early Boy 
354.  Sex of Parents in Residence: Early Girl
355.  Sex of Parents in Residence: Late Boy  
356.  Sex of Parents in Residence: Late Girl 
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    4       4       28      18
1 =     Male exclusively                                0       0       9       0
2 =     Male predominantly                              2       1       1       1
3 =     Both sexes equally                              135     135     124     127
4 =     Female predominantly                            22      21      13      16
5 =     Female exclusively                              23      25      11      24


385.  Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Early Boy 
386.  Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Early Girl
387.  Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Late Boy  
388.  Sex of Parental Authority Figures: Late Girl 
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    14      13      39      26
1 =     Male exclusively                                36      17      43      17
2 =     Male predominantly                              66      58      53      50
3 =     Both sexes equally                              55      59      43      52
4 =     Female predominantly                            8       20       3      20
5 =     Female exclusively                              7       19       5      21



389.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Early Boy 
390.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Early Girl
391.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Late Boy  
392.  Sex of Principal Non-Parental Authority Figures: Late Girl 
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    73      78      65      112
1 =     Male exclusively                                66      48      80      36
2 =     Male predominantly                              4        5       6      5
3 =     Both sexes equally                              37      35      29      14
4 =     Female predominantly                            2       2        2      4
5 =     Female exclusively                              4       18       4      15


417.  Sex of Parental Educators: Early Boys 
418.  Sex of Parental Educators: Early Girls
419.  Sex of Parental Educators: Late Boys  
420.  Sex of Parental Educators: Late Girls 
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    23      16      31      26
1 =     Male exclusively                                58      4       117     3
2 =     Male predominantly                              27      2       18      1
3 =     Both sexes equally                              51      40      14      11
4 =     Female predominantly                            17      20       3      12
5 =     Female exclusively                              10      104      3      133



429.  Use of Example: Early Boys 
430.  Use of Example: Early Girls
431.  Use of Example: Late Boys  
432.  Use of Example: Late Girls 
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    34      33      33      31
2 =     Children's activities differ from adults  
are not expected to behave like them                    0       0       0       0
3 =                                                     0       0       0       0
4 =                                                     0       0       0       0
5 =     Children are expected to do things more
or less by example                                      25      24      20      20
6 =                                                     22      23      23      23
7 =                                                     2        2      2
8 =     Children frequently shown example; 
considered very important in socializing child          79      79      83      84
9 =                                                     21      22      22      23
Example given as most important method
of education, or adults are constantly 
showing children how to do things.                      3       3        3      3


441.  Teasing: Early Boys 
442.  Teasing: Early Girls
443.  Teasing: Late Boys  
444.  Teasing: Late Girls 
Shaming and exposure to ridicule for misconduct:
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    85      85      73      74
2 =     Teasing absent                                  9       8       5       5
3 =                                                     8       10      8       9
4 =                                                     4       4       4       4
5 =                                                     34      33      39      38
6 =                                                     24      23      31      30
7 =                                                     2       2       2       2
8 =                                                     19      20      23      23
9 =     Teasing prevalent                               1       1       1       1


445.  Scolding: Early Boys 
446.  Scolding: Early Girls
447.  Scolding: Late Boys  
448.  Scolding: Late Girls 
Includes verbal reprimands, nagging, scolding for misbehavior:
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    76      74       71     69
0 =     Scolding absent                                 2       2        2      1
1 =                                                     3       2        1      1
2 =                                                     11      13       8      9
3 =                                                     8       7        8      7
4 =                                                     9       9        11     11
5 =                                                     54      54       51     51
6 =                                                     15      16       19     21
7 =                                                     1       1        0      0
8 =                                                     7       8        13     14
9 =     Harsh scolding                                  0       0        1      1
[10:]                                                   0       0        1      1


449.  Warning: Early Boys 
450.  Warning: Early Girls
451.  Warning: Late Boys  
452.  Warning: Late Girls 
Threats of punishment by supernatural beings or strangers.
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    87      87       86     87
0 =     Warnings absent                                 1       1        1      0
1 =                                                     0       0        1      1
2 =                                                     4       4        5      5
3 =                                                     3       3        4      4
4 =                                                     4       4        4      4
5 =                                                     29      29       32     32
6 =                                                     38      38       36     36
7 =                                                     1       1        1      1
8 =                                                     14      14       11     11
9 =     Warnings prevalent                              5       5        5      5


453.  Corporal Punishment: Early Boys 
454.  Corporal Punishment: Early Girls
455.  Corporal Punishment: Late Boys  
456.  Corporal Punishment: Late Girls 
Whipping and any other pain-inflicting treatment. 
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    41      46       39     46
0 =     Punishment absent                               9        9       10      8
1 =                                                     6        6        4      4
2 =                                                     35      35       29     30
3 =                                                     17      18       15     15
4 =                                                     12      12        8      9
5 =                                                     39      37       41     39
6 =                                                     20      16       17     16
7 =                                                     0        0        1      1
8 =                                                     3        3       18     16
9 =     Harsh Punishment                                3        1        3      1


457.  Ceremonies for Children: Early Boys 
458.  Ceremonies for Children: Early Girls
459.  Ceremonies for Children: Late Boys  
460.  Ceremonies for Children: Late Girls 
Included are those for first animal killed or first basket woven by 
young child, or ceremonies like birthday parties or children's days.  
Inclusion of children in cultural ceremonies justifies only moderate s
cores. 
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    54      62       40     55
0 =     Ceremonies absent                               3        4        1      0
1 =                                                     1        5        0      2
2 =                                                     48      47       20     32
3 =                                                     20      22       18     25
4 =                                                     6        5        5      9
5 =                                                     38      26       61     42
6 =                                                     13      11       32     13
7 =                                                     0        0        1      0
8 =     Ceremonies Prevalent                            3        4        8      8


461.  Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Early Boys 
462.  Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Early Girls
463.  Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Late Boys  
464.  Gifts for Approved Behaviors: Late Girls 
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    45      50      41      43
2 =     No material rewards for appr. behavior          24      20      17      17
3 =                                                     18      22      19      23
4 =                                                     8       8       8       8
5 =                                                     65      61      72      66
6 =                                                     22      19      23      21
7 =                                                     0       0       0       0
8 =     Material rewards for approved behaviors,        4       6       6       8
e.g., gifts or conferring of privileges. 


465.  Permissiveness: Early Boys 
466.  Permissiveness: Early Girls
467.  Permissiveness: Late Boys  
468.  Permissiveness: Late Girls 
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    17      19      18      18
0 =     Harsh socialization by parents or other         1       1       1       1
authority figures with severe punishment
1 =                                                     1       1       5       7
2 =     Generally harsh treatment, not extreme          4       7       6       8
3 =                                                     9       7       10      13
4 =                                                     12      17      23      31
5 =     Generally moderate or balanced degree           31      37      52      61
of both harshness and permissiveness
6 =                                                     37      41      32      22
7 =                                                     31      29      14      9
8 =     Generally indulgent, not extreme                28      19      15      12
9 =                                                     10      6       10      4
Generally lenient and indulgent permissiveness, 
minimal punishment or expression of 
disapproval [10:]                                       5       2       2       1


469.  Affection: Early Boys 
470.  Affection: Early Girls
471.  Affection: Late Boys  
472.  Affection: Late Girls 
Attention and positive interest expressed toward child. 
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    31      31      32      32
0 =     Minimal expression of affection,                0       0       0       0
attention, positive interest in child
1 =                                                     0       1       0       1
2 =     Generally low expression of affection           6       9       10      13
and attention
3 =                                                     3       3       4       4
4 =                                                     16      19      20      24
5 =     Moderate or sporadic expression of              40      35      43      37
affection and attention
6 =                                                     43      41      44      42
7 =                                                     19      21      17      19
8 =     Consistent, occasional strong expression        24      22      16      14
9 =                                                     4       4       0       0


473.  Evaluation by Society: Early Boys 
474.  Evaluation by Society: Early Girls
475.  Evaluation by Society: Late Boys  
476.  Evaluation by Society: Late Girls 
Degree to which children are desired and valued: 
                                                        Early           Late
                                                        Boys    Girls   Boys    Girls
99 =    Missing data                                    14      14      14      14
0 =     Children are viewed indifferently or            0       0       0       0
as a liability by society and local community
1 =                                                     0       1       0       1
2 =     Only slight, sporadic expression of             2       7       2       6
valuation of children
3 =                                                     3       9       3       9
4 =                                                     11      23      9       21
5 =     Moderate or occasionally strong                 39      30      39      35
expression of value of children
6 =                                                     46      50      48      49
7 =                                                     32      25      32      26
8 =     Strong, but no extreme valuation                26      18      27      17
of children
9 =                                                     13      9       12      8
Intense, repeated expression of cultural
valuation for children[10:]                             1       0       1       0


        ADOLESCENT INITIATION CEREMONIES

Schlegel, Alice, and Herbert Barry, III. 1979. Adolescent Initiation 
Ceremonies: A Cross-Cultural Code. ETHNOLOGY 18:199-210. 
Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.



529.  Occurrence: Boys
530.  Occurrence: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent for both boys and girls          80      81
        1 =     Absent for specified sex only           39      17
        2 =     Present                                 63      85


531.  Time: Boys
532.  Time: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  120     100
        2 =     before genital maturation               13      9
        3 =     at first signs of genital 
                maturation                              18      11
        4 =     at genital maturation                   6       57
        5 =     within one year after genital           7       5
                  maturation
        6 =     later (up to 18 years)                  8       1


533.  Number of Concurrent Initiates: Boys
534.  Number of Concurrent Initiates: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  119     99
        2 =     Single                                  29      73
        3 =     Small group                             7       6
        4 =     Large group                             27      5



535.  Duration of Ceremony: Boys
536.  Duration of Ceremony: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  119     99
        2 =     Short                                   28      36
        3 =     Medium                                  7       21
        4 =     Long                                    28      27



537.  Number of Participants: Boys
538.  Number of Participants: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  121     99
        2 =     Immediate family                        7       40
        3 =     Local group                             25      29
        4 =     Large group                             29      15


539.  Sexes of Participants: Boys
540.  Sexes of Participants: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  119     99
        2 =     Both sexes                              12      11
        3 =     Partially limited to same               17      28
                  sex as initiates
        4 =     Exclusively same sex as initiates       34      45


541.  Primary Physical Components: Boys
542.  Primary Physical Components: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  119     99
        2 =     None                                    6       11
        3 =     Manipulations or activities             17      45
        4 =     Pain other than genital operation       20      21
        5 =     Genital operation                       13      7
        6 =     Genital operation and other pain        7       0

543.  Secondary Physical Components: Boys
544.  Secondary Physical Components: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  119     99
        2 =     Neither manipulations nor 
                activities                              15      20
        3 =     Activities                              14      10
        4 =     Manipulation                            9       26
        5 =     Both manipulations and activities       25      28




545.  Primary Cognitive or Performance Components: Boys
546.  Primary Cognitive or Performance Components: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  119     99
        2 =     Symbolic only                           20      15
        3 =     Learning skills, sharing secrets,       3       3
                  or other
        4 =     Observing taboos                        8       1
        5 =     Seclusion                               7       9
        6 =     Both seclusion and observing taboos     18      54
        7 =     Fear                                    7       2


547.  Secondary Cognitive or Performance Components: Boys
548.  Secondary Cognitive or Performance Components: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  118     100
        2 =     Neither learning skills nor sharing     43      60
                  secrets
        3 =     Sharing secrets                         8       2
        4 =     Learning skills                         4       11
        5 =     Both learning skills and sharing        9       10
                  secrets



549.  Primary Emic Interpretations: Boys
550.  Primary Emic Interpretations: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  119     99
        2 =     None                                    4       5
        3 =     Status marker, physical change, or      41      75
                behavior change
        4 =     Spiritual change                        11      2
        5 =     Death-rebirth                           7       2


551.  Secondary Emic Interpretations: Boys
552.  Secondary Emic Interpretations: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  118     100
        2 =     No status marker                        8       8
        3 =     General status marker                   17      25
        4 =     Status marker for adolescence           14      12
                  or youth
        5 =     Status marker for full adulthood        25      38



553.  Tertiary Emic Interpretations: Boys
554.  Tertiary Emic Interpretations: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  118     100
        2 =     Neither physical nor behavior 
                change                                  31      48
        3 =     Behavior change                         10      12
        4 =     Physical change                         12      16
        5 =     Both physical and behavior change       11      7



555.  Primary Social Consequences: Boys
556.  Primary Social Consequences: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  118     100
        2 =     None                                    19      32
        3 =     Familial integration, familial          14      20
                  independence, or other
        4 =     Heterosexual intercourse                8       25
        5 =     Same-sex bonding                        17      3
        6 =     Both same-sex bonding and               6       3
                heterosexual intercourse


557.  Secondary Social Consequences: Boys
558.  Secondary Social Consequences: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  118     100
        2 =     None                                    36      57
        3 =     Other                                   6       8
        4 =     Familial independence                   13      9
        5 =     Familial integration                    9       9


559.  Principal Focus: Boys
560.  Principal Focus: Girls
                                                        Boys    Girls
        . =     Missing data                            4       3
        0 =     Absent                                  120     111
        2 =     Fertility                               11      34
        3 =     Sexuality                               10      18
        4 =     Valor                                   6       1
        5 =     Wisdom                                  7       1
        6 =     Responsibility                          26      23
        7 =     Other                                   2       7

        REPRODUCTIVE RITUALS

Paige, Karen Paige and Jeffrey Paige.  1981.  THE POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE 
RITUALS.  University of California Press.  These data are reprinted with 
permission of the author and the publisher.  (c) University of California 
Press.

Paige and Paige (1981: 67-69) took every even society from the standard 
sample, substituting adjacent societies if the ethnographic materials were 
more abundant (1 for ?, 3 for 4, 13 for ?, 19 for 20, 23 for 24, 29 for 30, 
31 for 32, 41 for 40?, 53 for 54, 57 for ?, 65 for 66, 69 for ?, 79 for 80, 
81 for 82, 85 for 86, 89 for 90, 91 for 92, 97 for ?, 111 for 112, 105 for ?, 
121 for 120?, 123 for 122?, 127 for 128, 129 for ?, 133 for 132?, 137 for ?, 1
41 for 142, 145 for 146, 151 for 152, 157 for ?, 159 for 160, 161 for ?, 
165 for ?, 169 for 168?, 173 for ?, 177 for 178). They added substitutes from 
their pretest, some of which substituted for even numbered standard sample 
societies: Lamba, Chenchu for 60 Gond, Baiga for 62 Santal, Tungus, Murngin 
for 88 Tobelorese?, Kiwai, Wogeo, Ifaluk, Kurtatchi, Ontong Javanese, Lau for 1
02 Mbau Fijians, Kwakiutl, Hupa for 134 Yurok, Sanpoil for 150 Havasupai, 
Navaho, Tarasco, Witoto.  It is not clear who were substitutes for the 78 
Nicobar and 144 Huron. They eliminated peasants (38 Bogo, 50 Basques, 76 Thai, 
116 Koreans, 154 Popoluca, 172 Aymara), and large states (such as the 54 
Russians, 56 Armenians, 66 Mongols, 82 Negri Sembilan, 114 Chinese, 146 Natchez, 
and 160 Haitians).  This left 91 societies coded for the standard sample. Their 
final sample of 108, after eliminating six peasant societies, includes 17 coded 
substitutes not in the standard sample: the latter are not included here with 
the standard sample codes. 


561.  Menarcheal Ceremonies

        99      99 =   Missing data
        44      1 =     Absent if onset of menstruation not marked by special 
                        public ritual
        43      2 =     Present if onset of menstruation associated with either 
                        elaborate or limited rites 
  

562.  Circumcision
  
        95      99 =    Missing data 
        69      1 =     Superincision, or subincision, or absent 
        22      2 =     Circumcision   



563.  Maternal Restrictions
  
        98      99 =    Missing Data 
        42      1 =     Absent
        46      2 =     Present  
  

564.  Husband Involvement Scale (Couvade)
  
        100     99 =    Missing Data 
        51      1 =     Minor Observance or informal 
        35      2 =     Seclusion, or postpartum work taboo, or food taboo 



NOTE: MARGINALS OFF +-2 FROM HERE ON

565.  Menstrual Segregation

        103     99 =    Missing data 
        56      1 =     Absent
        27      2 =     Present (either menstrual hut or structural 
                        isolation is reported)
  

566.  Male Segregation Practices
  
        105     99 =    Missing data 
        59      1 =     Absent or Minor
        22      2 =     Present  
  

573.  Ritual Warfare
  
        105     99 =    Missing data 
        51      1 =     Absent
        30      2 =     Present  

        
THE RELATIVE STATUS OF WOMEN PART 1

Whyte, Martin K.  1978.  Cross-Cultural Codes Dealing with the Relative 
Status of Women. ETHNOLOGY 17:211-237. Compiled with permission of Ethnology 
journal editors.

Only the odd numbered societies are coded in this study.  Because of problems 
of locating sources, the Khmer and Marquesans were coded for later time periods 
than the pinpointed focus.  The change in the focus was not sufficiently great 
to merit deletion of the Marquesan codes, although they draw on Auxiliary 
Primary Sources with a focal date of 1860 rather than 1800.  As Divale has 
shown, shifts of focus between studies will lower reliabilities somewhat, in 
this case neglibly.  Because the Khmer focus was changed from 1292 to 1860, 
however, Whyte's codes have been changed to "missing data" to avoid erroneous 
correlations.

Between 1987 and Dec 1989, codes for some of the even numbered societies, were 
filled in as coded by undergraduates at U.C. Irvine.  The symbol ":" was used 
in the student codes to indicate coder disagreement.

Student codes were found to be less reliable than the original codes, however, 
and the original Whyte codes were restored to the data disks in December 1989.  
At this time it was also decided that "original author codes" should be the 
exclusive standard for all further corrections.  This enables the best use of 
reliability tests were applicable.



576.  Sex of Gods and Spirits and Other Super-Natural Beings

        119     99 =  Missing data
        10      1 =     All male
        24      2 =     Male are more numerous or more powerful
        13      3 =     Male are more numerous while power equal or male are 
                        more powerful while numbers equal
        20      4=      Both and equal in numbers of power or women more 
                        numerous while power equal, or women more powerful 
                        while numbers equal


577.  Mythical Founders of the Culture

        121     99 =    Missing Data
        21      1 =     All male
        18      2 =     Both sexes, but the role of men more important
        19      3 =     Both sexes, and the role of both sexes fairly equal
        7       4 =     Both sexes, but female role more important, or solely female


578.  Sex of Shamans

        113     99 =    Missing Data
        14      1 =     All male
        26      2 =     Male more numerous, or more powerful
        26      3 =     Male more numerous while power equal, or male more 
                        powerful while numbers equal, or about equal in both
        7       4 =     Female more powerful or more numerous or solely 
                        female shamans



579.  Sex of Reputed Witches

        118     99 =    Missing Data
        16      1 =     All male
        21      2 =     Male predominance in numbers or power
        23      3 =     Both, and equal in numbers or power
        8       4 =     Female predominance in numbers of power or only 
                        female witches



580.  Participation in Collective Religious Ceremonies and Rituals

        113     99 =    Missing Data
        4       1 =     Only males
        36      2 =     Both, but males more commonly or more prominently
        28      3 =     Both, and fairly equal participation
        5       4 =     Both, but women more prominent


581.  Funeral or Burial Ceremonies Held

        102     99 =    Missing Data
        11      1 =     Only for males, or for both, but male more elaborate
        73      2 =     For both, and roughly equal


582.  Intermediate or Local Political Leaders

        112     99 =    Missing Data
        65      1 =     Only males
        7       2 =     Both sexes, but males more numerous or more powerful
        2       3 =     Both sexes, and males more numerous while females 
                        equally powerful or males more powerful while females 
                        equally numerous


583.  Leadership Posts in Kinship or Extended Family Units

        124     99 =    Missing Data
        52      1 =     Include men only
        6       2 =     Both, but men have more say and influence
        4       3 =     Both, with roughly equal influence


584.  Participation in Collective Fighting and Warfare

        116     99 =    Missing Data
        62      1 =     Only men
        8       2 =     Both, but men do most fighting, women only aid


585.  Proportional Contribution of Women to Overall Subsistence

        94      99 =    Missing Data
        2       1 =     Low
        2       2 =     
        14      3 = 
        23      4 = 
        27      5 = 
        18      6 = 
        2       7 = 
        4       8 =     High


586.  Relative Time and Effort Expended on Subsistence Activities

        98      99 =    Missing Data
        14      1 =     Men clearly expend more
        54      2 =     Men and women expend roughly equal
        20      3 =     Women clearly expend more


587.  Community-wide Exclusively Male Work Groups

        108     99 =    Missing Data
        20      1 =     None
        44      2 =     For one activity
        14      3 =     For two or more activities


588.  Community-wide Exclusively Female Work Groups

        114     99 =    Missing data
        45      1 =     None
        27      2 =     For one or more activity


589.  Degree of Segregation in Subsistence Activities

        109     99 =    Missing Data
        15      1 =     Men and women are sharply segregated
        41      2 =     Some segregation
        21      3 =     Little or no segregation in these activities


590.  Inheritance of Property of Some Economic Value

        105     99 =    Missing Data
        18      1 =     Only males, or males except in unusual circumstances
        27      2 =     Both, but males have definite preference
        22      3 =     Roughly equal inheritance rights by sex
        4       4 =     Female preference, or exclusive female rights


591.  Ownership or Control of the Use of Dwellings

        114     99 =    Missing Data
        22      1 =     Solely by men
        12      2 =     Most owned by men
        25      3 =     Equal ownership, or no preferential rights
        13      4 =     Most or all owned or controlled by women


592.  Control of Disposal and Use of Fruits of the Labor Done Solely by Men

        94      99 =    Missing Data
        30      1 =     Men have virtually total say
        41      2 =     Men have predominant say, or no indication of preference
        12      3 =     Men and women have equal say
        9       4 =     Women have the predominant or total say


593.  Control of Disposal and Use of Fruits of the Labor Done by Men and Women

        105     99 =    Missing Data
        7       1 =     Men have virtually total say
        6       2 =     Men have the predominant say
        60      3 =     Men and women have equal say, or no indication of preference
        8       4 =     Women have the predominant or total say


594.  Control of Disposal and Use of Fruits of the Labor Done Solely by Women

        94      99 =    Missing Data
        6       1 =     Men have virtually total say or predominant say
        10      2 =     Men and women have equal say
        62      3 =     Women have the predominant say, or no indication 
                        of preference
        14      4 =     Women have virtually total say


595.  Domestic work

        94      99 =    Missing Data
        47      1 =     Males do virtually none
        45      2 =     Males do some, but mostly done by females
        

596.  Double Standard in Regard to Premarital Sex

        113     99 =    Missing Data
        32      1 =     Yes
        41      2 =     No, equal restrictions on male and female


597.  Double Standard in Regard to Extramarital Sex

        111     99 =    Missing Data
        32      1 =     Yes
        41      2 =     No, equal restrictions
        2       3 =     Male punished more severely for transgression


598.  Extramarital Affairs of Married Women

        100     99 =    Missing Data
        40      1 =     Not allowed, and apparently rare
        29      2 =     Not allowed, but apparently not uncommon
        17      3 =     Allowed, or very common


599.  Menstrual Taboos

        124     99 =    Missing Data
        11      1 =     No menstrual taboos
        15      2 =     Rule vs. intercourse with menstruating woman
        9       3 =     Personal restrictions on menstruants, e.g., dietary
        3       4 =     Stated belief that menstrual blood is dangerous to men
        3       5 =     A rule that menstruating women may not cook for men
        6       6 =     Menstruating women are segregated from men, perhaps 
                        in a menstrual hut
        15      7 =     A rule that menstruating women may not have contact 
                        with some male things, e.g., fishing gear, bows


600.  The Role of Men and Women in Procreation Understood

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        7       1 =     Men are thought to play the more important role
        80      2 =     Belief in roughly equal contributions, or no 
                        evidence of greater contribution by either sex
        6       3 =     Women are thought to play the more important role


601.  Sexual Drives and Urges Understood

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        17      1 =     Men are thought to have stronger urges
        71      2 =     Belief that urges are roughly equal, or no 
                        evidence of belief in greater urges by either sex
        5       3 =     Women are thought to have stronger urges


602.  An Explicit View that Sexual Activity is Dangerous or Contaminating

        118     99 =    Missing Data
        15      1 =     Yes
        53      2 =     No


603.  Role of the Older Generation in Arranging Marriages (1st Marriages
      Only)

        103     99 =    Missing Data
        13      1 =     Males monopolize arrangement
        33      2 =     Both males and females participate, males have more say
        28      3 =     Both participate, and with roughly equal say
        9       4 =     Both males and females participate, females have more say


604.  Voice of the Potential Bride and Groom in Marriage Decisions

        106     99 =    Missing Data
        4       1 =     Only the groom can initiate or refuse a match
        27      2 =     Groom has more ability to initiate or refuse
        46      3 =     Equal ability to initiate or refuse a match
        3       4 =     Bride has more ability to initiate or refuse


605.  Marriage Payments

        109     99 =    Missing Data
        5       1 =     Woman exchange
        36      2 =     Substantial bride price
        10      3 =     Bride service
        10      4 =     Token bride price
        10      5 =     Gift exchange
        6       6 =     Dowry


607.  Multiple Spouses

        94      99 =    Missing Data
        71      1 =     Only for males
        4       2 =     For both, but more commonly for males
        15      3 =     For neither
        2       4 =     For both, but more commonly for females


609.  Relative Distances Moved by the Bride and Groom Away from 
        their Families of Orientation at First Marriage

        102     99 =    Missing Data
        58      1 =     The female moves farther away
        7       2 =     About equal distance
        19      3 =     The male moves farther away


610.  Relative Ease of Initiating Divorce

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        5       1 =     Divorce is in theory only available to male
        12      2 =     Divorce is possible for both, but more difficult for female
        72      3 =     Divorce equally possible, no indication of bias
        4       4 =     Divorce is possible for both, but more difficult for male, 
                        or in theory only available to female


611.  Relative Ease of Remarriage

        101     99 =    Missing Data
        21      1 =     Possible for both, but fewer obstacles for men
        64      2 =     Equally possible for both men and women
        

612.  Average Relative Age at First Marriage of Men and of Women

        116     99 =    Missing Data
        2       1 =     Women generally older
        7       2 =     Ages about equal
        12      3 =     Men 1-2 years older
        18      4 =     Men 3-4 years older
        31      5 =     Men more than 4 years older
        


613.  Final Authority over the Care, Handling and Discipline of Infants

        119     99 =    Missing Data
        12      1 =     monopolized by males, or males have more say
        11      2 =     is divided roughly equally
        21      3 =     is divided, but females have more say
        23      4 =     is monopolized by females



614.  Final Authority over the Up-bringing and Discipline of Post-infant
        Unmarried Children Living in the Home

        118     99 =    Missing Data
        11      1 =     is virtually monopolized by males
        14      2 =     is divided, but males have more say
        34      3 =     is divided roughly equally
        9       4 =     is divided but females have more say, or final say is 
                        virtually monopolized by females


615.  Wife to Husband Institutionalized Deference (Guttman Scale)

        102     99 =    Missing Data
        29      1 =     None of the following coded
        15      2 =     Husband dominates domestic decision making
        21      3 =     + Wife excluded from many social gatherings
        9       4 =     + Wife rarely disputes husband
        7       5 =     + Husband has seating priority
        3       6 =     + Wife kneels and bows when greeting husband


616.  A Stated Preference for Children of One Sex

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        28      1 =     For males
        54      2 =     Equal, no preference
        11      3 =     For females



617.  Any Evidence of Infanticide

        115     99 =    Missing Data
        6       1 =     Mostly for females
        64      2 =     For both, or for neither
        1       3 =     Mostly for males


618.  Early Training for Adult Duties

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        1       1 =     Boys are trained earlier generally
        70      2 =     Training begins at roughly equal ages, 
                        no stated bias by sex
        22      3 =     Girls are trained earlier generally



619.  Punishment for Equal Misbehavior

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        3       1 =     Boys are punished more severely
        82      2 =     Punishment about equal, no stated bias by sex
        8       3 =     Girls are punished more severely
        

620.  Physical Punishment of the Spouse Condoned

        123     99 =    Missing Data
        39      1 =     Only husband hitting wife generally
        16      2 =     Physical punishment by neither
        8       3 =     Either may hit the other, or only wife may hit husband


621.  An Explicit View that Men Should and Do Dominate their Wives

        123     99 =    Missing Data
        42      1 =     Yes
        19      2 =     No, evidence of rough equality
        2       3 =     No, evidence of wife dominance



622.  Attendance and Participation in General Community Gathering

        124     99 =    Missing Data
        27      1 =     Only men, or both, but men more often or more 
                        prominently
        35      2 =     Both equally, although perhaps segregated


623.  Existence of General Female Initiation Ceremonies

        110     99 =    Missing Data
        36      1 =     No initiations for females
        8       2 =     Customary minimal social recognition
        10      3 =     +Personal dramatization of the initiate
        12      4 =     +Organized social response
        10      5 =     +Affective social response (e.g., punishment or 
                        operations)



624.  Any Belief that the Status of Women has Changed in Folklore or
        History

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        6       1 =     A belief it has declined
        83      2 =     No such belief, or no change
        4       3 =     A belief it has improved


625.  High Value Placed on Males being Aggressive, Strong, and Sexually 
        Potent

        105     99 =    Missing Data
        26      1 =     Marked emphasis
        33      2 =     Moderate emphasis
        22      3 =     Little or no emphasis
        

626.  Belief that Women are Generally Inferior to Men

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        27      1 =     Yes
        66      2 =     No such belief

627.  A Statement that Women Have More Informal Influence than Formal
        Norms of the Society Would Make It Appear

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        49      1 =     No such statement or implication
        25      2 =     A statement or implication of somewhat more informal 
                        influence
        19      3 =     A statement or implication of much more informal 
                        influence


628.  Property Control Scale

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        4       1 =     Women have low control over property
        19      2 = 
        60      3 = 
        10      4 =     Women have high control over property



629.  Kin Power Scale

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        19      1 =     Low power of women in kinship contexts
        52      2 = 
        22      3 =     High power of women in kinship contexts


630.  Value of Life Scale

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        8       1 =     Low value placed on women's lives
        37      2 = 
        48      3 =     High value placed on women's lives



631.  Value of Labor

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        1       1 =     Low value of women's labor
        9       2 = 
        40      3 = 
        34      4 = 
        9       5 =     High value of women's labor


632.  Domestic Authority Scale

        97      99 =    Missing Data
        8       1 =     Low women's domestic authority
        21      2 = 
        32      3 = 
        28      4 =     High women's domestic authority
        

633.  Ritualized Female Solidarity Scale

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        26      1 =     Low female solidarity
        38      2
        29      3 =     High female solidarity



634.  Control of Sex Scale

        94      99 =    Missing Data
        3       1 =     Stricter controls over women's marital and 
                        sexual lives
        56      2 = 
        33      3 =     More equal controls over women's marital and 
                        sexual lives


635.  Ritualized Fear Scale

        93      99 =    Missing Data
        6       1 =     High ritualized fear of women
        18      2 = 
        69      3 =     Low ritualized fear of women

636.  Joint Participation Scale

        95      99 =    Missing Data
        10      1 =     Low joint participation of men and women
        50      2 = 
        31      3 =     High joint participation of men and women


        
CULTURAL THEORIES OF ILLNESS

George P. Murdock and Suzanne Wilson.  1978.  ETHNOLOGY 17:449-470.

651.  Theories of Contagion

        58      99 =    Missing data
        81      1 =     Absence of such a cause
        46      2 =     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
        1       3 =     An important auxiliary cause
        0       4 =     Predominant cause recognized by the society

652.  Theories of Mystical Retribution

        55      99 =    Missing data
        26      1 =     Absence of such a cause
        68      2 =     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
        32      3 =     An important auxiliary cause
        5       4 =     Predominant cause recognized by the society


653.  Theories of Soul Loss

        59      99 =    Missing data
        96      1 =     Absence of such a cause
        30      2 =     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
        1       3 =     An important auxiliary cause
        0       4 =     Predominant cause recognized by the society

654.  Theories of Spirit Aggression

        55      99 =    Missing data
        2       1 =     Absence of such a cause
        18      2 =     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
        37      3 =     An important auxiliary cause
        74      4 =     Predominant cause recognized by the society

655.  Theories of Sorcery

        56      99 =    Missing data
        16      1 =     Absence of such a cause
        45      2 =     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
        45      3 =     An important auxiliary cause
        24      4 =     Predominant cause recognized by the society

 656.  Theories of Witchcraft

        55      99 =    Missing data
        81      1 =     Absence of such a cause
        24      2 =     Minor or relatively unimportant cause
        17      3 =     An important auxiliary cause
        9       4 =     Predominant cause recognized by the society


FEMALE POWER AND MALE DOMINANCE

Sanday, Peggy.  1981.  FEMALE POWER AND MALE DOMINANCE.  Previously 
unpublished codes provided by the author.


657.  Flexible Marriage Mores (Divorce for both men and women: or mild 
punishment for adultery) 

        44      99 =    Missing data
        28      1 =     Absent 
        114     2 =     Present


658.  Females Produce Goods for Nondomestic Distribution

        34      99 =    Missing data
        27      1 =     Absent 
        125     2 =     Present


659.  Demand for Female Produce beyond Household

        51      99 =    Missing data
        40      1 =     Absent 
        95      2 =     Present


660.  Female Economic Control of Products of Own Labor

        47      99 =    Missing data
        41      1 =     Absent 
        98      2 =     Present


661.  Female Political Participation, at least informal influence

        41      99 =    Missing data
        62      1 =     Absent 
        83      2 =     Present

662.  Female Solidarity Groups, formal or informal

        56      99 =    Missing data
        93      1 =     Absent 
        37      2 =     Present




663.  Female Power Guttman Scale

        53      99 =    Missing data
        11      1 =     all items absent
        9       2 =     flexible marriage mores only (657)
        5       3 =     plus female nondomestic production (658)
        13      4 =     plus demand for female produce (659) 
        23      5 =     plus female economic control (660)
        41      6 =     plus female political participation
        31      7 =     plus female solidarity groups


664.  Ideology of Male Toughness

        78      99 =    Missing data
        21      1 =     Absent 
        87      2 =     Present


665.  Male Segregation:  One or more places where males congregate alone, 
        or males occupy a separate part of the household, or there is sharp 
        ceremonial segregation of the sexes. 

        75      99 =    Missing data
        24      1 =     Absent 
        87      2 =     Present


666.  Moderate or Frequent Interpersonal Violence

        55      99 =    Missing data
        43      1 =     Absent 
        88      2 =     Present

667.  Rape:  Incidents reports, or thought of as means of punishment 
        women, or part of ceremony. 

        91      99 =    Missing data
        45      1 =     Absent 
        50      2 =     Present


668.  At least some Wives taken from Hostile Groups

        55      99 =    Missing data
        84      1 =     Absent 
        47      2 =     Present



669.  Male Aggression Guttman Scale

        79      99 =    Missing data
        15      1 =     no items present (664)
        5       2 =     ideology of male toughness only (665)
        18      3 =     plus separate places for men (666)
        12      4 =     plus interpersonal violence (667)
        19      5 =     plus rape institutionalized or reported (668)
        38      6 =     plus taking wives from hostile groups (669) 


670.  Composite Male Dominance (663 plus 669): Lo Female Power, High 
        Male Aggression.

        47      99 =    Missing data
        45      1 =     sexes `equal' -- i.e., female power scale 5 or above, 
                        and male aggression scale 4 or below 
        55      2 =     Amythical@ male -- female power scale 5 or above, 
                        and male aggression scale 5 or above 
        39      3 =     sexes Aunequal@--female power scale 4 or below




Pollution Beliefs


671.  Menstrual Taboos (H16)

        76      99 =    Missing data
        8       1 =     no menstrual restrictions
        26      2 =     one restriction present
        25      3 =     two restrictions
        17      4 =     three
        15      5 =     four
        19      6 =     five


672.  Male Avoidance of Female Sexuality (A11)
(CHECK IF CORRECT ASSIGNMENT OF CODES)

        76      99 =    Missing data
        26      1 =     none
        51      2 =     sexual intercourse prohibited during menstruation
        31      3 =     sexual intercourse prohibited at other times also
        8       4 =     men avoid or fear female genitals



Creation Stories

673.  Sex of Creative Agent, Ancestor, or Culture-Hero

        147     99 =    Missing data
        6       1 =     Female 
        2       2 =     Sexless
        6       3 =     Couple 
        9       4 =     Male
        3       5 =     Animal 
        13      6 =     Supreme being or force


674.  Origin of First Creator or Ancestor

        147     99 =    Missing data, or no information
        13      1 =     From within (`feminine')
        3       2 =     From within and without
        21      3 =     From without (`masculine')
        2       4 =     Void


675.  Mode of First-Mentioned Creation

        147     99 =    Missing data
        14      1 =     From the body:  Union and/or birth
        2       2 =     From the body:  Self-propagation
        20      3 =     From other than the body
        3       4 =     Cannot be determined


676.  Creation Stories (composite of 675 and 656, plus additional societies) 

        74      99 =    Missing
        20      1 =     feminine symbolism
        36      2 =     couple symbolism
        56      3 =     masculine symbolism

NOTE: information in Table C.4 sufficient to distinguish:
                1 =     feminine symbolism
                2 =     masculine-feminine symbolism:  ambiguous
                3 =     couple symbolism
                4 =     masculine symbolism:  discrepant feminine element also present
                5 =     masculine symbolism

Predictor Variables

677.  Migration

        81      99 =    Missing data
        47      1 =     aboriginal area or migrated centuries ago
        58      2 =     recent migration, within past 100-150 years, or 
                        people are said to be migrating conquerors


 678.  Food Stress or Hunger

        48      99 =    Missing data
        47      1 =     food constant 
        62      2 =     occasional hunger or famine
        26      3 =     periodic or chronic hunger
        3       4 =     starvation or evidence of protein deficiency
(NOTE: exact coding distinction between 3 and 4 unclear)


679.  Warfare or Fighting

        53      99 =    Missing data
        41      1 =     absent or occasional or periodical
        92      2 =     frequent or endemic


FEMALE STATUS:  INDEPENDENT VARIABLES PART 1

Whyte, Martin K.  1978.  THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN PREINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES.  
Princeton University Press.  Previously Unpublished codes provided by 
the author.

ONLY THE ODD NUMBERED SOCIETIES ARE CODED IN THIS STUDY.

693.  Frequency of Intercommunity Armed Conflict
 
        95      . =     Missing data  
        49      1 =     Past, supralocal, or absent  
        42      2 =     Present and endemic local warfare (collapsed from an 
                        original five categories)


694.  Male Initiation Ceremonies (Guttman Scale - see Frank Young, 1965)
(coefficient of scalability = .76)

        111     . =     Missing data  
        37      1 =     No initiation 
        10      2 =     Minimal social recognition   
        7       3 =     Personal dramatization of the initiate
        3       4 =     Organized social response
        18      5 =     Affective social response: beating, hazing or operations 


695.  Male Solidarity (Guttman Scale - see Young and Bacdayan 1965)
(scalability = .88)

        93      . =     Missing data  
        57      1 =     No institutionalized male solidarity 
        7       2 =     Some exclusive male activity protected by physical or 
                        normative barriers
        6       3 =     Ritualization given to this activity 
        14      4 =     Definite ranking of men within this activity
        9       5 =     War training or planning a part of this activity


700.  Crimes against Person Punished
 
        94      . =     Missing data  
        37      1 =     By person or group wronged   
        55      2 =     By government action



704.  Private Property
 
        102     . =     Missing data  
        70      1 =     Absent 
        14      2 =     Present
 


711.  Societal Complexity (Guttman Scale - Freeman and Winch 1957) 
        (scalability .643, a shade below accepted minimum of .65)

        93      . =     Missing data  
        37      1 =     Absence of all traits in scale 
        13      2 =     Crimes punished by government (704)  
        9       3 =     Full-time specialized priests
        1       4 =     Formal education
        8       5 =     Written language
        25      6 =     Full-time bureaucrats (705)  

 
712.  Institutionalized Envy (scaled by unweighted sum for presence or 
        absence of four correlated indicators -- (a) men imitate women, 
        (b) women imitate men, and (c) exclusive mother-infant sleeping, 
        and (3) exclusive mother-child sleeping). Constructed arithmetically 
        from means and cutting points. 
 
        100     . =     Missing data  
        13      1 =     No items present
        14      2 =     One or two item present
        59      3 =     Three of four items present  
 
 
713.  Religion
 
        93      . =     Missing data
        14      1 =     Classical religion (Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism)
        31      2 =     Mixture of classical and pre-classical
        48      3 =     Pre-classical
 

 714.  Sex Ratio (WARNING: subject to errors in ethnographic reporting)
        96      . =     Missing data  
        10      1 =     Female excess 
        60      2 =     Roughly equal 
        20      3 =     Male excess



715.  Systematic Absences of Married Males (Military service, Labor 
        elsewhere, Extended trade expeditions, etc.) 
 
        94      . =     Missing data  
        38      1 =     No systematic absences
        6       2 =     Systematic absences -- not presently, but within memory 
                        of present adults
        48      3 =     Systematic absences common presently 
 



QUALITY CONTROL VARIABLES
 
716.  Sex of Coders
 
        93      . =     Missing data  
        12      1 =     Both male
        43      2 =     Male and female 
        38      3 =     Both female   
 
720.  Sex of Authorities
 
        93      . =     Missing data  
        66      1 =     All males
        23      2 =     Mixed males and females
        4       3 =     All females   

722.  Occupation of Authorities
 
        95      . =     Missing data (or some or all unknown)
        55      1 =     No anthropologist
        30      2 =     Some anthropologists  
        6       3 =     All anthropologists   
 
723.  Formal Fieldwork training of authorities
 
        94      . =     Missing data (or some or all unknown)
        56      1 =     All had some  
        29      2 =     some had
        7       3 =     None had any


724.  Knowledge of native language
 
        99      . =     Missing data (or some or all unknown)
        52      1 =     All knew it well
        33      2 =     Some knew it well
        2       3 =     None knew it well
         

725.  Total periods of fieldwork
 
        97      . =     Missing data (or some or all unknown)
        11      1 =     One year or less
        36      2 =     One to three years
        42      3 =     More than three years 
 

726.  Anthropological Present
 
        93      . =     Missing data  
        8       1 =     Before 1800 A.D.
        34      2 =     1801-1900
        40      3 =     1901-1950
        11      4 =     After 1950 A.D. 

        HUSBAND-WIFE RELATIONSHIPS

Broude, Gwen, and Sarah J. Greene.  1983.  Cross-Cultural Codes on 
Husband-Wife Relationships. ETHNOLOGY 22:263-280. 
Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.

739.  Marriage Arrangements

        38      . =     Missing data
        46      1 =     Individual selects and/or courts partner autonomously:  
                        approval by parents or others unnecessary
        26      2 =     Individual selects and/or courts partner autonomously:  
                        parental, kin, and/or community approval necessary or 
                        highly desirable
        5       3 =     Individual suggests partner to parents or others:  
                        arrangements for courtship or marriage then proceed 
                        if choice is approved  OR parents ask approval of 
                        individuals to initiate a match OR individual is 
                        approached by parent or others on behalf of suitor 
                        and can accept or reject the match   
        27      4 =     Individual choice and arranged marriages are alternatives
        25      5 =     Parents choose partner: individual can object 
        19      6 =     Parents choose partner: individual cannot easily object 
                        or rarely objects in fact 
 

740.  Marriage Arrangements (Female)

        35      . =     Missing data
        12      1 =     Individual selects and/or courts partner autonomously:  
                        approval by parents or others unnecessary
        40      2 =     Individual selects and/or courts partner autonomously:  
                        parental, kin, and/or community approval necessary or 
                        highly desirable
        4       3 =     Individual suggests partner to parents or others; 
                        arrangements for courtship or marriage then proceed if 
                        choice is approved OR parents ask approval of individuals 
                        to initiate a match OR individual is approached by parent 
                        or others on behalf of suitor and can accept or reject 
                        the match
        27      4 =     Individual choice and arranged marriages are alternatives
        35      5 =     Parents choose partner: individual can object 
        33      6 =     Parents choose partner: individual cannot easily object 
                        or rarely objects in fact

 741.  Widow Remarriage:  Choice of Partner

        94      . =     Missing data
        28      1 =     Widow chooses new husband herself with no outside 
                        interferences   
        27      2 =     Remarriage into first husband's kin group usually or 
                        preferred, but widow can choose new husband from elsewhere 
                        if she wishes 
        4       3 =     Widow chooses new husband herself, but from first husband's 
                        kin group or community
        27      4 =     Widow's husband's kin chooses new husband
        6       5 =     Remarriage is absent, uncommon, or strongly disapproved



742.  Time of Mourning Before Remarriage of Widows

        147     . =     Missing data
        4       1 =     No period of mourning: remarriage as soon as possible 
        3       2 =     One week to two months of mourning
        9       3 =     Over two months but less than one year of mourning
        18      4 =     One year or over of mourning   
        5       5 =     No remarriage   


743.  Attitude towards Divorce

        126     . =     Missing data
        11      1 =     Expected, accepted, tolerated, not disapproved
        16      2 =     Mildly disapproved, e.g., attempts by others to 
                        reconcile couple, marriages expected to be permanent 
                        but divorce accepted without stigma if inevitable
        11      3 =     Approved if reasons are considered justified; otherwise 
                        disapproved   
        11      4 =     Expected, accepted, tolerated, not disapproved in 
                        first years of marriage and/or before children; otherwise 
                        disapproved   
        11      5 =     Strongly disapproved; stigma attached to divorce

744.  Frequency of Divorce

        101     . =     Missing data
        8       1 =     Universal or almost universal  
        31      2 =     Common, frequent, not uncommon 
        11      3 =     Moderate: a small minority of couples divorce 
        10      4 =     Frequent in first years of marriage and/or before 
                        children; rare thereafter
        25      5 =     Rare, isolated instances, never
 

745.  Grounds for Divorce (Male)

        105     . =     Missing data
        54      1 =     No grounds necessary for divorce; divorce equally 
                        easy or difficult with out without justification
        17      2 =     Grounds not absolutely necessary, but divorce is 
                        financially, legally and/or socially earlier with them
        7       3 =     Divorce only with grounds
        3       4 =     No divorce


746.  Grounds for Divorce (Female)

        104     . =     Missing data
        39      1 =     No grounds necessary for divorce; divorce equally easy 
                        or difficult with or without justification
        30      2 =     Grounds not absolutely necessary, but divorce is 
                        financially, legally and/or socially easier with them 
        9       3 =     Divorce only with grounds
        4       4 =     No divorce



748.  Customs surrounding Consummation of Marriage

        120     . =     Missing data
        21      1 =     Socially recognized as a special occasion and couple 
                        granted privacy 
        6       2 =     Special occasion and private, but signal of consummation 
                        proof of potency, virginity awaited by others 
        8       3 =     Special occasion, others present 
        31      4 =     Not a special occasion


750.  Sleeping Proximity between Husbands and Wives

        76      . =     Missing data
        43      1 =     Same room and close proximity: e.g., same bed, same 
                        blanket, touching, back to back, adjacent sleeping  
                        places allocated to spouses
        15      2 =     Same room but no close proximity: e.g., different beds, 
                        different hammocks, different sections of room  
        45      3 =     Same room, proximity unknown   
        7       4 =     Different rooms 


751.  Privacy in Sleeping for Husbands and Wives (Only if Husband and 
        Wife sleep in Same Room)

        96      . =     Missing data
        6       1 =     Husband and wife sleep together alone or with infants 
        13      2 =     Husband and wife sleep with prepubescent children
        6       3 =     Unmarried members of nuclear family sleep with husband 
                        and wife, but either sons or daughters sleep elsewhere 
                        after early childhood  
        22      4 =     All members of nuclear family below marriageable age  
                        sleep with husband and wife
        11      5 =     Other adults occasionally sleep with husband and wife; 
                        e.g., other adult dependents who are temporary members 
                        of the newlyweds household  
        32      6 =     Other adults permanently sleep with husband and wife  


752.  Husband-Wife Eating Arrangements

        76      . =     Missing data
        71      1 =     Husband and wife usually eat together  
        11      2 =     Husband and wife are together during meals; wife does 
                        not eat with husband, but serves him and/or converses 
        28      3 =     Husband and wife often, usually, or always eat apart  



753.  Husband-Wife Leisure Time Activities

        88      . =     Missing data
        4       1 =     Husband and wife usually spend leisure time together 
                        and at home, alone or with nuclear or extended family members  
        21      2 =     Husband and wife sometimes spend leisure time together at 
                        home, and sometimes together in a group (e.g., they go 
                        over or have visitors); same-sex activities may be present, 
                        but they are not salient
        21      3 =     Husband and wife usually spend leisure time together, but 
                        group activities are emphasized: e.g., couple go to dances 
                        together, spend their time habitually in camp with others
        28      4 =     Husband and wife sometimes spend leisure time together as 
                        a couple or in a group, but sex-segregated activities are 
                        also salient: e.g., couple goes to dances, market together, 
                        but then join same-sex group
        24      5 =     Husband and wife generally spend leisure time apart:  
                        same-sex activities predominate


754.  Wife-Beating

        116     . =     Missing data
        14      1 =     Absent   
        56      2 =     Present  


755.  Husband Attends Birth

        118     . =     Missing data
        11      1 =     Husbands expected or allowed to attend the births of 
                        their children and usually do
        4       2 =     No taboo against presence of husband at births but 
                        husbands often (?) or usually are absent  
        4       3 =     Husbands attend births only in emergencies
        8       4 =     Husbands not allowed to attend births, but have specific 
                        tasks or roles associated with labor or delivery 
        41      5       Husbands not allowed to attend births and are explicitly 
                        barred from playing any role in labor or delivery


POLITICAL DECISION MAKING AND CONFLICT

Marc Ross, 1983. Political Decision Making and Conflict: Additional 
Cross-Cultural Codes and Scales. ETHNOLOGY 22: 169-192.
Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.

Ross selected the even numbered societies in the standard sample to code, 
and numbered them 1 to 93. If data were insufficient to code, he substituted 
the previous or next society depending on whether their number was even or 
odd in the list.  If the first substitute was inadequate, a second substitute 
(the opposite adjacent society) was tried.  He found 33 cases with insufficient 
data to code: 10, 14, 15, 24, 32, 38, 39, 44, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 66, 67, 74, 
75, 76, 78, 80, 86, 88, 120, 126, 146, 152, 154, 155, 160, 170, 171, 178, 182.  
He needed 26 odd-numbered substitutions of adjacent societies, but had to drop 
three cases with no adequate second substitute, for a total coded sample of 90. 
There are 63 societies remaining to code for his variables.


767.  Conflict (Social or Political) in the Local Community

        96      99 =    Missing data
        4        1 =    Endemic: a reality of daily existence (e.g., physical 
                        violence, feuding, bitter factionalism)
        20       2 =    High: Conflict present but not a pervasive aspect of 
                        daily life
        46       3 =    Moderate: Disagreements and differences do not result 
                        in high violence or severe disruption
        20       4 =    Mild or rare


768.  Conflict between Communities of the Same Society

         97     99 =    Missing data
        25       1 =    Endemic: High physical violence, feuding, and/or 
                        raiding occur regularly 
         23      2 =    Moderately High, often involving physical violence
         21      3 =    Moderate: Disputes may occur regularly but tendency 
                        to manage them in a more or less peaceful manner
        20       4 =    Mild or rare


770.  Resort to Physical Force by Disputants in settling disputes, Exclusive 
        of Police or institutionalized force, 

        96      99 =    Missing data
        34      1 =     Often used
        32      2 =     Sometimes used
        24      3 =     Rarely or never used


 771. Mediation/Negotiation/Arbitration: Third parties in disputes, 
        unable to  impose a binding decision, but may facilitate settlement 

        98      99 =    Missing data
        57      1 =     Often used (to settle disputes)
        19      2 =     Sometimes used
        12      3 =     Rarely or never used

 773.  Internal Warfare (Between communities of same society)

         101    99 =    Missing data
         31      1 =    Frequent, occurring at least yearly
         14      2 =    Common, at least every five years
         10      3 =    Occasional, at least every generation
         30      4 =    Rare or never


774.  External Warfare (with other societies)

         102    99 =    Missing data
         45      1 =    Frequent, occurring at least yearly
         13      2 =    Common, at least every five years
         6       3 =    Occasional, at least every generation
         20      4 =    Rare or never

 781.  Acceptability of Violence toward Members of the local Community 

        100     99 =    Missing data
        0        1 =    Valued
        7        2 =    Acceptable
        18       3 =    Tolerated
        61       4 =    Disapproved


782.  Acceptability of Violence toward Members of the Same Society, but 
 outside the Local Community 

         109    99 =    Missing data
         12      1 =    Valued
         28      2 =    Acceptable
         10      3 =    Tolerated
        27       4 =    Disapproved


783.  Acceptability of Violence toward people in Other Societies 

         122    99 =    Missing data
         39      1 =    Valued
         16      2 =    Acceptable
         3       3 =    Tolerated
         6       4 =    Disapproved


789.  Type of Cross-Cutting ties: Age Organizations (Grades, Sets) Cutting 
        across Communities 

         97     99 =    Missing data
         78      1 =    Absent
         5       2 =    Present but not politically important
         6       3 =    Present and political important


793.  Female Participation in Public Political Arenas, Relative to Males 

         106    99 =    Missing data
         8       1 =    High: in some situations equal to or greater than that of men
         27      2 =    Significant but not as high as male involvement
         19      3 =    Not great but clearly some role for women in public aspects 
                        of political life
         26      4 =    Women generally excluded from public aspects of politics


794.  Female Participation in Private Political Arenas, Relative to Males 

         120    99 =    Missing data
         35      1 =    High: in some situations equal to or greater than that 
                        of men
         15      2 =    Significant but not as high as male involvement
         12      3 =    Not great but clearly some role for women in private 
                        aspects of political life 
         4       4 =    Women do not seem to get involved in political life in 
                        private arenas


 795.  Gender differences in Political or Quasi-Political Positions of 
 Authority 

         102    99 =    Missing data
         8       1 =    Women and men eligible for some of the same positions 
                        and women commonly do so
         18      2 =    Women and men eligible for some of the same positions 
                        and women occasionally do so
         7       3 =    Women rarely, if ever, hold some of the same positions 
                        regardless of rules of eligibility
         51      4 =    The same political positions are not open to both women 
                        and men 


 796.  Separate Female Organizations and Positions

         117    99 =    Missing data
         22      1 =    Some associations or organizations under exclusive 
                        control of women
         15      2 =    No associations but some positions of authority for 
                        which only women are eligible
         32      3 =    No associations or positions exclusively controlled 
                        by women


        
ADOLESCENT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

Herbert Barry, III, and Alice Schlegel. 1984. Measurements of Adolescent 
Sexual Behavior in the Standard Sample of Societies. ETHNOLOGY 23: 315-332.

Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.
   


827.  Sexual Expression in Adolescent Boys and Girls:
828.  Sexual Expression in Adolescent Boys and Girls:

Encouragement of sexual behavior, taking into account its frequency, 
emotional intensity, importance, and variety (including range of 
partners) in adolescence.  Heterosexual intercourse is the principal 
criterion, but heterosexual foreplay, masturbation, homosexuality, 
sexual jokes, and exposing the genitals were also considered.   

Heterosexual intercourse and others forms of sexual expression are:

                                                        Boys    Girls
99 =    missing data                                    32      28
 0 =                                                    0       1
 1 =                                                    9       23
 2 = Not approved or admired by parents 
         or authorities.  Mild forms (e.g. 
         sexual jokes) sometimes approved.              27      37
        
 3 =                                                    5       3
 4 =                                                    12      10
 5 =    Normally and generally approved 
[by parents, etc.].  Moderate frequency,
intensity, importance, variety                          33      31
 6 =                                                    15      9
 7 =                                                    7       7
 8 =    Strongly approved and valued 
[by parents, etc.].  High frequency, 
variety of sexual behavior admired.                     44      34
 9 =                                                    2       3
10 =                                                    0       0


829.  Sexual Non-restraint in Adolescent Boys and Girls:
830.  Sexual Non-restraint in Adolescent Boys and Girls:

The absence of sexual restraints such as taboos or restrictions on 
heterosexual intercourse and other erotic behavior, including heterosexual 
play, masturbation, and homosexuality.   A high degree of modesty, such as 
the requirement to keep the genitals constantly covered in public, indicates 
moderate restraint.   Incest taboos, if highly emphasized or widely extended, 
are considered as indicators of restraint.   

Heterosexual intercourse and others forms of sexual expression are:

                                                                Boys    Girls
99 =                                                            31      27
 0 =                                                            0       1
 1 =                                                            4       7
 2 =    Strictly and effectively prohibited                     21      36
 3 =                                                            7       10
 4 =                                                            10      9
 5 =    Disapproved and punished mildly 
and inconsistent                                                30      32
 6 =                                                            13      9
 7 =                                                            5       3
 8 =    Condoned and not generally punished                     45      37
 9 =                                                            20      15
10 =                                                            0       0

NOTE: Sexual Non-restraint = Sexual Expression + 1 more or less.   
The authors indicate the advisability of using the sum of the two 
scores as a "Sexual Freedom" index.   


"Sexual Non-restraint" variables for boys and girls in early and late 
childhood are formed by the following recodings of variables 326-329: 

    0 = 11                      on variables 326-329
    1 = 10
    2 =  9
    3 =  8   Note: Var. 326 = Early, boys
    4 =  7              327 = Early, girls
    5 =  6
    6 =  5
    7 =  4         Var. 328 = Late, boys
    8 =  3              329 = Late, girls
    9 =  2
   10 =  1




831.  Differentiation of Adolescence from Childhood for Boys, Girls:
832.  Differentiation of Adolescence from Childhood for Boys, Girls:

These variables were recoded on a three point scale, collapsed from a 0-10 
rating.  No cases of 0-1 or 9-10 ratings were reported. 

Differentiation of adolescent from preadolescent activities, status, and 
all other attributes of behavior and self-concept: (codesheet definition).                        
                                                        Boys    Girls
99 =                                                    20      22
 1 =    (2)Low, mostly the same, no formal
        transition.  Frequent companionship
        between the two stages
        (3)
        (4)                                             48      62
 2 =    (5)Substantial, but inconsistent, 
        not formalized, or companionship 
        only for some activities
        (6)
        (7)                                             57      59
 3 =    (8)High, with formal transition. 
        Infrequent companionship with 
        younger children.                               61      43

George P. Murdock and Douglas R. White.  1969.  Standard Cross-Cultural 
Sample.  ETHNOLOGY 8: 329-369.
Compiled with permission of Ethnology journal editors.
 


839.  Pinpointing Date by Decade 

        1       11 =    110 AD
        1       29 =    1290
        1       52 =    1520
        1       53 =    1530
        1       55 =    1550
        1       62 =    1620
        1       63 =    1630
        2       65 =    1650
        1       71 =    1710
        2       75 =    1750
        1       77 =    1770
        2       80 =    1800
        2       82 =    1820
        1       83 =    1830
        3       84 =    1840
        6       85 =    1850
        9       86 =    1860
        7       87 =    1870
        10      88 =    1880
        12      89 =    1890
        15      90 =    1900
        16      91 =    1910
        15      92 =    1920
        31      93 =    1930
        14      94 =    1940
        24      95 =    1950
        6       96 =    1960

        POLYGYNY: FORM AND FREQUENCY

Douglas R. White.   New Codes (begun in collaboration with John Whiting).  
Prepared in part under National Science Foundation grant BNS-8507685.  
See 1988 "Rethinking Polygyny: Co-Wives, Codes and Cultural Systems."  
Current Anthropology 29:529-571.


863.  Distance between Co-Wives

        30      99 =    Missing data
        1       0 =     One wife, multiple husbands
        25      1 =     One wife (Atlas M)
        59      2 =     Co-residence for multiple wives (Atlas PR)
        25      3 =     One wife resides with husband, others in separate houses
        13      4 =     One wife resides with husband, others in separate communities
        31      5 =     Separate housing in compound for every wife (Atlas QS)
        2       6 =     Separate housing in village for every wife [as might occur, 
                        for example, with men's houses, e.g., Otoro - check] 


866.  Higher rates of polygyny for men of wealth, rank, nobility, or higher 
social class.

                 * =    merge 1-3: incomplete coding for categories above 1
        31      99 =    Missing data
        64       0 =    No Stratified polygyny
        92       1 =    Stratified Polygyny
               ?10 =    Hereditary upper social class (note: incompletely coded)
               ? 9 =    Achieved rank connected with groups (note: incompletely coded)
               ?73 =    Achieved wealth - due to contributions of wives (ditto)


868.  Multiple wives for Leaders, Headmen, Chiefs

        24      99 =    Missing data
        95      0 =     No, or unimportant
        67      1 =     Yes, or Leaders have more wives than commoners

869.  Multiple wives for Medicine Men or Shamans
NOTE:   sometimes coded 0 for General polygyny although magicians also 
polygynous--unclear whether higher polygyny level should be required in 
this instance for this code 

        25      99 =    Missing data
        141     0 =     No, or unimportant
        20      1 =     Yes


870.  Additional wives or concubines from Slavery or Capture in Warfare
NOTE: It is often difficult to distinguish secondary wives taken as slave 
concubines, or marriage to freed slaves, and wives taken from capture in 
warfare, as slavery areas often capture slaves

        28      99 =    Missing data
        100     0 =     No female captives
        ? 8     1 =     Women taken as captives but not married
        ?58     2 =     Captives in war or slaves taken as wives or concubines

877.  Polygyny Guttman Scale I: "Co-Wife Autonomy"

        5       99 =    Missing data
        69      0 =     None of the following
        51      1 =     Stratified Polygyny (854) only     
        6       2 =     Negative binomial (855), plus above
        13      3 =     Marriage of female captives (858), plus above
        7       4 =     General polygyny (849), plus above
        9       5 =     Rooming apart (853), plus above
        26      6 =     Polygynous compounds (852), plus above


878.  Polygyny Guttman Scale II: "Charismatic"

        4       99 =    Missing data
        44      0 =     None of the following
        72      1 =     Rooming together (853) only
        26      2 =     Co-Wives same dwelling (852), plus above
        25      3 =     Sororal (851), plus above
        9       4 =     Polygynous hunters (855), plus above
        6       5 =     Exclusive sororal polygyny (851), plus above

        THE NATURE OF WARFARE

Valerie Wheeler [Nammour], 1974.  Drums and Guns: A Cross-Cultural Study of 
the Nature of War.  Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Oregon.

The author's comments on reliability and validity are cited after each code, 
where relevant.  

References cited:

Naroll, Raoul.  1966.  Does military deterrence deter?  Trans-Action 3(2): 
14-20. 

Otterbein, Keith F.  1970.  The Evolution of War: A Cross-cultural study.  
HRAF Press. 

 
907.  VALUE OF WAR: VIOLENCE/WAR AGAINST NON-MEMBERS OF THE GROUP

        40      99 =    Missing Data
        72      1 =     Enjoyed and considered to have high value
        51      2 =     Considered to be a necessary evil
        23      3 =     Consistently avoided, denounced, not engaged in

"This variable complements but does not duplicate, or resolve, variable 
[906]....  Clumsy as this variable may seem, it was quite easy to code, 
largely due to clear observation by the ethnographer as to the value of war.  
The evidence may be comments by the observer, texts or poems and songs, or 
statements by the actors."  Wheeler 1974: 275


909.  SUBJUGATION OF TERRITORY OR PEOPLE

        18      99 =    Missing Data
        35      1 =     Present
        133     2 =     Absent or not mentioned

910.  COLLECTION OF TRIBUTE

        18      99 =    Missing Data
        18      1 =     Present
        150     2 =     Absent or not mentioned


911.  ACQUISITION OF LAND: FIELDS, HUNTING/FISHING TERRITORIES, PASTURES

        18      99 =    Missing Data
        50      1 =     Present
        118     2 =     Absent or not mentioned


912.  PLUNDER (INCLUDING CAPTIVES FOR SLAVES, HOSTAGES, ADOPTION)

        18      99 =    Missing Data
        104     1 =     Present
        64      2 =     Absent or not mentioned


913.  TROPHIES AND HONORS (INCLUDING CAPTIVES FOR SACRIFICE)

        18      99 =    Missing Data
        49      1 =     Present
        119     2 =     Absent or not mentioned


914.  REVENGE

        17      99 =    Missing Data
        111     1 =     Present
        58      2 =     Absent or not mentioned

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